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Cold War, - The Cold War(1945-1989 The I Overview I...

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Unformatted text preview: The Cold War (1945-1989) The I. Overview I. Ideological and diplomatic war between Ideological U.S. and Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) U.S. Weapons – Threat of war – Covert support of friendly regimes – Moral rebuke – Economic sanctions, boycotts, etc. Historiography (Interpretation) Historiography Original interpretation—Soviets at Fault New Left of the Sixties—U.S. at fault Recent—both sides at fault II. Pre-Cold War Relations II. Bolshevik Revolution (1917) Red Scare (1919) World War II – Allies by necessity Second Front Controversy (1941-1943) – Stalin v. FDR and Churchill Eastern Front – U.S. and Britain did not participate Yalta (Feb 1945) Yalta Agreements – Charter for United Nations – Divide Germany – Punish high ranking Nazis Disagreements – Eastern Europe left unresolved Potsdam (July 1945) Potsdam Truman instead of FDR Clement Atlee instead of Churchill Germany had surrendered – No need for alliance anymore Previous agreements affirmed No agreement on Eastern Europe III. Round One (1945-1950) III. “llike two big dogs chewing on an bone” ike William Fulbright William Iron Curtain Speech (Churchill, 1946) Consolidation of West Germany (19471948) Soviet Response—Closed off Berlin Berlin Airlift (June 1948-May 1949) Truman Doctrine (1947) Truman Greece and Turkey Truman – U.S. must be prepared to aid all governments U.S. threatened by totalitarianism from without or within. within. Containment Policy Containment George Kennan – U.S. must be prepared to use “unalterable U.S. counterforce” to contain spread of Communism. Communism. Marshall Plan Korean War (1950-1954) 1949 1949 Soviets get atomic bomb China goes Communist – “We’ve lost China…” North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) IV. Cold War Stalemate (1950sIV. 1960s) Death of Stalin (1953) Bay of Pigs (Cuba, 1961) Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Third World Vietnam War (1954-1974) Berlin Wall (1961) – John F. Kennedy—”Ich bin ein Berliner.” Sino-Soviet Split (1962) V. Seventies : Détente V. Détente – Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev – SALT I Treaty 1972 Nixon and the China Card Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979 Afghanistan VI. End of Cold War VI. Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) – Military Buildup – “Tear down this wall.” Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1989) – – – Perestroika (economic restructuring) Glasnost (Openness) Glasnost 1989 Speech (end of Brezhnev Doctrine) 1989: Year of Revolution 1989: Poland – Solidarity Hungary Czechoslovakia – Vaclav Havel – Velvet Revolution Romania – Nicolae Ceausescu d. 1989 Berlin Wall – November 9-10, 1989 Germans on top of Berlin Wall, November 1989 November Removing Berlin Wall Removing December 21, 1989 Break up of Soviet Union (1990Break 1991) Boris Yeltsin (1990) August Coup (1991) Baltic Republics Georgia Ukraine Uzbekistan Uzbekistan others others ...
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