Essay: Parenthetical (“lecture”, “gaddis, 228”) citations
Four explanations (choose one):
1. Reagan ended the cold war?
2. or Gorbachev ended the cold war?
3. Successful containment worked?
4. Communist system collapsed? Communism as a system of govt failed in practice although good in theory.
“in this essay I’ll discuss various positions on CW end, but in the end I conclude that Gorbachev did it”. (example).
Which one is most persuasive to you.
CHOOSE ONE CLEARLY.
Things to consider: what happens to all the nukes, was it an unipolar world, was Russia going to become
democratic, what was going to happen to NATO, what was Russia’s economic system like, security: communism &
nukes were the big fear now there’s non-state terrorism (insurgencies shift from communists to bin ladin/al-qaeda
Intro: Evaluating the end of the CW
The remarkable nature of the end:
Summary: Near the 70’s the US looked like they were losing.
Ultimately the US supported the dictators and didn’t make the US very popular.
Ho Chi Minh: Truman changed the policy towards him and he needs the French and
help them try to retain control of French Indo-China. In 8 years, (45-1954) we
actually pumped in $8billion to Vietnam. (domino theory). French lost (100,000
troops), divided the Vietnam, we get involved in 1965-1973. By 1975 the north
overtakes the south.
Later learned that this time Soviet had a lot of economic problem.
Nixon comes to power and exploits that division between China and USSR.
Realpolik pragamatist (Kissinger) flexible policy with China. Nixon famously goes
No one predicted the end of the CW: Vietnam protests, Nixon impeached
(Watergate), Gerald Ford comes to power pardons the president, Carter: 1979 Iran
revolution by a wide range of ppl overthrew the shah. Radicals do take power. Seize
the American Embassy and kept prisoners. Soviets invade Afganistan. Reagan comes
to power. By the end of the 80’s, things have changed. HOW did that happen?
Essential suicide of country (
can’t explained by systemicists
), unification of
Germany and be a part of NATO.
End of 70’s, depressed economy in the US, US lost battles around the world,
dictators that US supported were overthrown.
There are 2 Reagan. Reagan 1 is hard-line anti-commie. Reagan 2 was a bit softer
and much more willing to compromise
Soviets give up satellites in E. Europe, Germany joins NATO, 1991 Soviet Unions
disintegrates into 15 separate countries. CW disappears without anticipation.
Our task: explain the end of the CW and how it ended.
iii. Zero-sum world drove American foreign policy makers for many decades. 1980’s saw
everyone predicting eventual warfare and see the CW as LT. Some new power might rise
up (like Japan). Multi-faceted phenomenon for end of CW, still being investigated.
II. Levels of analysis and the end of the CW