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Essay - 1 Where did the Nationalists succeed and fail in...

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1) Where did the Nationalists succeed and fail in building a modern state during the decade from 1927 to 1937? Why? Succeed •National unification •Tariff autonomy •Financial reforms •Abolition of concessions •Infrastructure constructions •Education and research Failures •Dictatorship under “Political Tutelage.” Opposes democracy. But this was a problem because one of the “three principles” was democracy. •The Blueshirts. A Fascist movement. Chiang thought this is what China needed, and the first step to this is the creation of an organization that had to proclaim loyalty to one person- Chiang. •The New Life Movement. “To militarize the life of the people.” •Dominance of the “Four Big Families.” Worst nationalist problem. They were really corrupt, formed a monolopy. •Government corruption •Rural policies 2) What are the early Communist leaders’ approaches to the Chinese revolution? Where did Mao’s strategies differ from his predecessors? Earlier CCP leaders focused of the proletariat and attacking major urban centers and collaborating with the Nationalists. Mao, contrarily, focused on a peasant revolution, and attaining support from the rural areas. 3) Discuss changes in the Communists’ land policies during the 1920s through the 1940s, and explain why there were such changes. 4) Why were the Communist forces able to defeat the Nationalists during the civil war (1945-49)? 5) What is “New Democracy”? How was it reflected in China’s political and economic systems and social/cultural policies in the early 1950s? This was the first movement after the communist victory. It was a democratic bourgeoisie revolution against imperialism and feudalism. It advocated democracy for the peasants, the working class, the petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie. The leadership was under the communist party and the goal was to build socialism even though it was a mix between socialism and capitalism. The enemies were seen as the landlords, bureaucratic and comprador bourgeoisie, and counterrevolutionaries. Religious affiliations were tolerated, foreign-based schools were allowed to stay open, and professors received a
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salary increase. Foot binding, prostitution and gambling all disappeared. First years people were very happy with the government. It was not corrupt, workers and scholars were paid very well. It is remember as the golden age. China during this time span was prosperous and liberal. 6) Why did Mao decide to speed up the transition from New Democracy to socialism? How did the transition take place in industry and commerce in the cities and in agriculture? Mao Zedong became the leader of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Under the leadership of Mao and the Communist Party of China (CCP), the future of China was socialism. Following the Korean War (1950 - 1953), foreign investment was revoked in China due to economic embargo. Therefore, a policy was adopted by the gov’t that began a transformation of private business ownership to joint state-private ownership which was completed by the end of 1956. Secondly, the gov’t adopted an agricultural
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