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Unformatted text preview: Dynastic Cycle - 1.) A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. 2.) China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity and a new golden age. 3.) The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay, corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability. 4.) The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven, their legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a rebellion. The Mandate of Heaven is then passed to the next dynasty. The First Emperor of the Qin Sinocentrism- any ethnocentric political ideology that regards China to be central or unique relative to other countries; China stood at the center of the system and regarded itself as the only civilization in the world; the emperor of China was regarded as the only legitimate emperor of the entire world. Surrounding countriesincluding Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Annam, Cambodia, Siam, Malacca and Sri Lankawere regarded as barbarians and vassals of China, offering tribute to the emperor of China and receiving titles and privileges in return. Confucius- a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period. Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism or Taoism during the Han Dynasty (206 BC AD 220). Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism. He expressed the well-known principle, " Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself ", one of the earlier versions of the Golden Rule. Taoism founded in 500s BC Religious system developed by Lao Tsu (born 604BC) Focus on understanding your life, and your relationship with the world around you Main theory says no matter how many things in your life, they all balance out with Yin (dark) & Yang (light) o Yin can become Yang, and vice versa, but always balance out Emphasizes naturalness, vitality, peace, "non-action" Practiced in conjunction with Confucianism, Buddhism, other belief systems Civil Service Examination Established 605, expanded by Song Dynasty (960-1279) 1/year essay exam, 3-day test Judge mental capacity & also calligraphy o Highly stylized form o Best are recruited as government officials Required intense study of Confucian texts Provided for egalitarian, meritocratic process of choosing government officials Agricultural Involution 17-1800s Economic consequence of intense population surge during the Qing Dynasty Characterized by increasing land productivity, decreasing labor productivity o As number of workdays increase, overall output increases, but output/workday decreases Contrasts with agricultural revolution in Europe, which saw increasing land and labor productivity Emperor Kangxi Ruled 1662-1722 Longest reinging Chinese Emperor; 61 years Consolidated the Qing Empire o All of China proper, Manchuria (including Outer Manchuria), part of the...
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course HIS 340M taught by Professor Li during the Summer '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Summer '11
- Qing Dynasty