Modern China Final Exam Study Guide

Modern China Final Exam Study Guide - Modern China Final...

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Modern China Final Exam Study Guide 1-“New Culture” Movement: The “New Culture” Movement, 1915 - 1920s Iconoclasm / radical anti-traditionalism Neo-Confucian values Superstitions Classical Chinese language “Wholesale westernization” Mr. Democracy Mr. Science Gender equality Freedom in marriage Use of vernacular language for writing The May Fourth Movement, 5/4/1919 International events: WWI, 1914-18 Treaty of Versailles, 1918 The Russian Revolution, 1917 The Birth of the CCP, 7/1/1921 : Help from Comintern and its emissary Gregory Voitinsky Chen Duxiu as the general secretary of the CCP 2-Northern Expedition: 1926-28 1) “Right Opportunism” – Chen Duxiu Adhered to the cooperation with Guomindang and accepted its leadership Gave up the Communists’ autonomy Discouraged peasant mobilization Stepped down after the April coup by Chiang Kai-shek (4/12/1927) 2) “Leftist Adventurism” – Li Lisan Followed the Russian model of revolution Attacked major cities Downplayed peasant mobilization Attack on Changsha failed, 9/1927 The Autumn Harvest Uprising, 9/1927 Mao’s Strategies
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Base area Land reform Social reforms Guerrilla tactics 3-Xian Incident: 4-Second GMD-CCP Alliance: “Double Reduction” in the Communist area, 1939 Purposes: Win support from “rural gentry” to deal with the Japanese (“three all”) Win support from peasants to deal with the Nationalist militia The “Three Thirds” system Composition of government officials: 1/3 Communists 1/3 Nationalists 1/3 Enlightened gentry Reasons behind expansion: Self-sufficiency Indoctrination of the populace (the literacy campaign) Political rectification (eliminating followers of Wang Ming) 5-“Double Reductions”: 6-“Three Principles of the People”: 7-Civil War, 1945-49: Failures of the Nationalist government: Strategic mistakes – “extended lines & occupied points” Lack of cooperation – GMD armies as “confederation of warlords” Low morale and defections Intelligence work of CCP Loss of popular support – inflation 8-“Mao Zedong Thought”: 1) Class analysis Poor peasants – 70% Utterly destitute – 20% Less destitute – 50% Middle peasants – 20% Rich peasants and landlords – 10 % 2) Theory and Practice
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Dogmatists (determinists & Leftists) Mao – creative interaction between theory & practice 3) Contradictions Unity of opposites Principle vs. secondary contradictions Antagonistic vs. non-antagonistic contradictions *9-“New Democracy”: The Communist Revolution = New Democratic Revolution Nature: Democratic (bourgeois) revolution against imperialism and feudalism Leadership: the Communist Party Final goal: to build socialism The “New Democratic” society The Communist leadership Democracy for the people: Working class Peasants “Petty bourgeoisie” “National bourgeoisie” Dictatorship for enemies Landlords “Bureaucratic and comprador bourgeoisie”
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