Modern China Midterm - 1-Dynastic Cycle The 4-stage cycle that characterizes the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties In the first stage land is reclaimed

Modern China Midterm - 1-Dynastic Cycle The 4-stage cycle...

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1-Dynastic Cycle: The 4-stage cycle that characterizes the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties. In the first stage, land is reclaimed, seeds/farming tools are provided, and a small, efficient government with light taxation made people very happy for about 50-60 years because the founding rulers were familiar with what caused the previous dynasty to fail. Stage two is population growth, expansion of cities and urbanization which caused the size of the government to begin to grow in order to deal with the population. Stage three is characterized by the expansion of the government to control the people and people becoming wealthier. When this happens, land becomes more concentrated and peasant farmers become dissatisfied. Stage four involves government corruption and inefficiency, dislocation of the landless, social instability, rebellions and foreign invaders, devastation of the economy, and the population being wiped out. 2-The First Emperor of the Qin : He became the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BC, After unifying China, he and his chief advisor Li Si passed a series of major economic and political reforms, undertook gigantic projects, including the first version of the Great Wall of China massive national road system, outlawed and burned many books, standardizing the Chinese units of measurements, developed an extensive network of roads and canals connecting the provinces to improve trade between them. 3-Sinocentrism : Sinocentrism refers to the Chinese people’s view of their culture as the first and only legitimate civilization. Viewing China in this way can partially be attributed to the fact that in the 1600’s, European missionaries in China produced maps for the emperor that placed China in the center of the earth in order to persuade the emperor. As a result of these maps, the Chinese developed the concept of China as the “middle kingdom.” Sinocentrism has played an important role in Chinese political history because this view has led the Chinese to feel justified in ruling people living on the outskirts of China proper, including the Tibetans and the Taiwanese. They believe that civilizations such as these are simply rooted in Chinese history and not legitimate civilizations of their own. 4-Confucius: 5-Taoism 6-Civil service examination: how government officials were selected The primary exams: The primary exams : County-level exam: five consecutive tests, supervised by the magistrate in every February. Prefecture-level exam: three consecutive tests in every April, and Yuan-level exam: twice every three years. the Graduates: shengyuan, as lower gentry members Provincial exam : At the provincial capital, Every three years in August, Three consecutive tests, Three days per test, Graduates: Juren qualified to be an official Metropolitan exam :1) Preliminary exam in the capital: Every three years in the next March, Three consecutive tests, Three days per test 2) In-palace exam: In April of the same year, One-day single test by

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