modern china review - D ynastic cycle- the patterns formed...

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Dynastic cycle - the patterns formed by the dynasties that ruled in China as they rose and fell in power. It was a cycle of growth and decay. Chinese explanation for dynastic cycle was that the failure of the old dynasty was proof that it had lost support of the gods, “the mandate of heaven.”Can be classified by four steps Stage 1: land reclamation; light taxation; efficient government Stage 2: economic expansion; population growth; urbanization Stage 3: expanded government; land concentration; increased tax burden Stage 4: government corruption and inefficiency; dislocation of the landless; social instability; rebellion/foreign invasion; economy devastated; population wiped out The first emperor of the Qin - Qin Shihuangdi. First emperor of the Qin dynasty that lived from 221-206 BC. Was known as much for his ruthlessness and cruelty as for his achievements as a unifier. This was during the warring states. Qin defeated the warring states and Unified China for first time. Before this, China was divided for more than 800 years. - He ordered the “burning of the books.” The destruction of all local records and philosophical works that predated his reign. - Broke power of local landlords - Standardized the writing system and weights and measures Sinocentrism - Ideology of the Chinese state. Idea that China is the center of the world, and only civilized land. Based on acceptance of Confucius values. Some reasons for this include, Geographic isolation; Advanced economy; tributary system. Confucius - Philosopher during the spring and autumn time of ancient China. Lived a period of a divided China that was breaking down tradition society. Confucius wanted to restore traditional Chinese values. Fathered Confucius teachings as an explanation to fixing the political and morality problems of the time. This was done through “Ren”-perfect virtue- and “li”- rules of propriety; a proper conduct according to status. He therefore teaches
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“Ren” ( generosity, sincerity) through “li” (rules). His teachings are very influential in china and are key to Chinese morality as it became the official state doctrine during the Han Dynasty. During the Han, a system of examinations for selecting government officials was created based on Confucius teachings. This would last until the collapse of China’s last Dynasty, the Qing in 1912. Taoism - Fathered by Lao Tzu, who lived during the spring and autumn time. Focused on the self; a relationship between YOU and the WORLD. Has theory of TAO (an understanding of the universe) which is based on Yin and Yang. Each force counters the other and forms the world. For they are not constant, they change and become the other. Meaning that nothing in world is absolute; nothing absolute good or bad. Emphasizes development of character through non-action. Civil Service Examination
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modern china review - D ynastic cycle- the patterns formed...

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