ModernChinaFinalIDS-1 - New Culture Movement Late 1910's An...

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“New Culture” Movement Late 1910's An intellectual renaissance with radical anti-traditional ideas It was an era of “wholesale westernization.” Chen Duxiu is considered one of the most important leaders. Upon the signing of Treaty of Versailles and the granting of concession to Germany, Chinese launches May 4 th movement in which they went away from westernization and took up socialism, because the soviets gave back all Chinese concessions. Chen, now begins to write about Marxism and becomes one of the Communist founding fathers. Northern Expedition 1926-1928. A united front was formed by the CCP and the KMT to kick out the western imperialists and terminate warlords. After successful campaigns, and working their way north Chiang Kaishek turned against the Communist and initiated the White Terror, where he brought his troops into Shanghai and executed communists. This led to a new Nationalist government being established a few days later, under Chiang’s control in Nanjing. CCP splintered and almost annihilated as Chiang purged them. Xian Incident 1936. KMT general Chang Hseuh-lai becomes an ally to Mao Zedong and takes Chiang Kai-shek prisoner. He did this to convince Chiang that a second united front to fight the Japanese was necessary. Chiang agreed to halt the war with the Communists and focus on the Japanese. Second United Front 1937 to 1945. KMT and CCP allied in an attempts to fight off the Japanese invaders. the alliance was uneasy and the two continued mutual hostility. CCP policies passed during 8 year period led to immense party growth. These included: “double reduction” and “three thirds system”. It is during this time that Mao also firms his control of the party.
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“Double Reductions” 1939. CCP policy used during the second united front that reduced rent and interest rates. It allowed the party to win support from “rural gentry” to deal with Japanese, and from peasants to deal with Nationalists. “Three Principles of the People” Sun Yat-Sen’s program for creating a modern China. 1. Nationalism: The creation of a strong Chinese state by expelling the foreign intruders out of China. 2. Democracy: The final outcome of the gradual enfranchisement of all citizens. 3. Social well-being: Control of capitalists, and nationalization of land. Civil War 1945 to 1949 Nationalist and Communist governments failed to agree on a united government and who the Japanese should surrender to. In 1946, Chiang attacked the Communist in North China. The results are best analyzed by Nationalist major failures and CCP Successes.
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course HIS 340M taught by Professor Li during the Summer '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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ModernChinaFinalIDS-1 - New Culture Movement Late 1910's An...

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