ModernChinaFinalIDS - New Culture Movement From 1915-1920s...

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- From 1915-1920’s. An intellectual renaissance with radical anti-traditional ideas such as: Confucianism, superstitions, and classical Chinese language. It was an era of “wholesale westernization.” Chen Duxiu is considered one of the most important leaders. He created The New Youth, a magazine were he encouraged the acceptance of western scientific ideas, and democracy, gender equality, freedom in marriage, and getting rid of the classical Chinese writing system. May Fourth movement is most important uprising of movement because as the Chinese protested the Versailles Treaty, it commenced a different view of western countries. Now views were changed against western civilization, and Marxism became a leading ideology. Chen, now begins to write about Marxism and becomes one of the Communist founding fathers. Northern Expedition - 1926-1928. A united front was formed by the CCP and the KMT to kick out the western imperialists and terminate warlords. This would secure an independent China. In attempts to free China, The Northern expedition was the plan to take over the warlord held areas to the North of China. After successful campaigns, and working their way north Chiang Kaishek turned against the Communist and initiated the White Terror, where he brought his troops into Shanghai and executed communists. This led to a new Nationalist government being established a few days later, under Chiang’s control in Nanjing. Xian Incident - 1936. After Japanese invasion, KMT general takes Chiang prisoner in what was known as the Xian incident. He did this to convince Chiang that a second united front was necessary. An alliance was needed to defeat the Japanese. After intense negotiations, Chiang agreed to Halt the war with the Communist and focus on driving the Japanese out. The union, however, was uneasy and the two continued mutual hostility. Second United Front - 1937 to 1945. Second time the KMT and CCP allied, this time in attempts to fight against the Japanese invaders. Alliance, however, was uneasy and the two continued mutual hostility. CCP policies passed during 8 year period led to immense party growth. These included: “double reduction” which canceled land reform policy, and paid rent to landlords. Also introduced, “three thirds system” which reorganizes the government to introduce members from both parties. It is during this time that Mao also firms his control of the party. 1/3 Communists 1/3 Nationalists 1/3 Enlightened gentry “Double Reductions” - 1939. CCP policy used during the second united front that reduced rent and interest rates. Ultimately, these two policies were essential to the immense party growth during the eight years war with the Japanese. It allowed the party to win support from “rural gentry” to deal with Japanese, and from peasants to deal with Nationalists. “Three Principles of the People”
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course HIS 340M taught by Professor Li during the Summer '11 term at University of Texas.

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ModernChinaFinalIDS - New Culture Movement From 1915-1920s...

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