- From 1915-1920’s. An intellectual renaissance with radical
anti-traditional ideas such as: Confucianism, superstitions, and classical Chinese
language. It was an era of “wholesale westernization.” Chen Duxiu is considered one of
the most important leaders. He created The New Youth, a magazine were he encouraged
the acceptance of western scientific ideas, and democracy, gender equality, freedom in
marriage, and getting rid of the classical Chinese writing system. May Fourth movement
is most important uprising of movement because as the Chinese protested the Versailles
Treaty, it commenced a different view of western countries. Now views were changed
against western civilization, and Marxism became a leading ideology. Chen, now begins
to write about Marxism and becomes one of the Communist founding fathers.
- 1926-1928. A united front was formed by the CCP and the KMT
to kick out the western imperialists and terminate warlords. This would secure an
independent China. In attempts to free China, The Northern expedition was the plan to
take over the warlord held areas to the North of China. After successful campaigns, and
working their way north Chiang Kaishek turned against the Communist and initiated the
White Terror, where he brought his troops into Shanghai and executed communists. This
led to a new Nationalist government being established a few days later, under Chiang’s
control in Nanjing.
- 1936. After Japanese invasion, KMT general takes Chiang prisoner in
what was known as the Xian incident. He did this to convince Chiang that a second
united front was necessary. An alliance was needed to defeat the Japanese. After intense
negotiations, Chiang agreed to Halt the war with the Communist and focus on driving the
Japanese out. The union, however, was uneasy and the two continued mutual hostility.
Second United Front
- 1937 to 1945. Second time the KMT and CCP allied, this
time in attempts to fight against the Japanese invaders. Alliance, however, was
uneasy and the two continued mutual hostility. CCP policies passed during 8 year
period led to immense party growth. These included: “double reduction” which
canceled land reform policy, and paid rent to landlords. Also introduced, “three
thirds system” which reorganizes the government to introduce members from both
parties. It is during this time that Mao also firms his control of the party.
- 1939. CCP policy used during the second united front that
reduced rent and interest rates.
Ultimately, these two policies were essential to the
immense party growth during the eight years war with the Japanese. It allowed the party
to win support from “rural gentry” to deal with Japanese, and from peasants to deal with
“Three Principles of the People”