New Culture Movement

New Culture Movement - 1) New Culture Movement-A movement...

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1) New Culture Movement -A movement that took place from 1915-1920 that was a reaction to the rigid traditionalism that had engulfed China for thousands of years. Led by Chen Duxiu who wrote “New Youth”, it advocated iconoclasm, radical anti-traditionalism that challenged: 1) Neo- Confucian values 2) Superstitions 3) and classical Chinese language. They also embraced Wholesale Westernization such as 1) Mr. Democracy 2) Mr. Science 3) Gender Equality 4) Freedom in Marriage and 5) Use of a vernacular language for writing. 2) Northern Expedition -The conquest of the warlords in 1927 by the nationalist party that subjugated all the provinces and unified China. 3) Xian Incident -After the Japanese invaded China, Kai-Shek refused to use adequate force to counter the invasion. In 1936 in the city of Xi’an, Chiang Kai-Shek was taken prisoner by Marshall Zhang, former warlord of Manchuria after announcing new plans to suppress the CCP. This led to a mediation between the CCP and the nationalists which led to their second alliance. This ultimately led Kai-Shek to use the alliance to counter the Japanese. 4) The Second GMD CCP Alliance- Lasted from 1937 to 1945 in response to the Japanese invasion and the Xi’an incident. This involved the double reduction program which involved keeping landlords happy by letting them keep their land but also making the rural peasants happy by lowering the rent on land from 50 to 37.5 percent and interest rates on loans from 3 to 1.5 percent. The three-thirds system restructured the government to be composed of 1/3 communists, 1/3 nationalists, and 1/3 enlightened gentry. During this period the communist forces expanded due to: 1) Self Sufficiency 2) Indoctrination of the populace (the literacy campaign) and 3) Political rectification. 5) Double Reduction Movement - Program launched in the communist areas in 1939. Previously land had been confiscated from landowners but now they were allowed to keep their land to keep them happy. In exchange for this peasants were kept happy because rent was lowered from 50 to 37.5 percent and interest rates on loans were lowered from 3 to 1.5 percent. This kept rural gentry’s support to deal with the Japanese and the peasants happy to eventually take on the nationalists. 6) 3 Principles of the People -Proposed by Sun Yat-Sen who led the revolution of 1911. The first is nationalism, which appealed to the masses of China. The second was democracy, which pushed for a government founded under democratic ideals (a republic). The last was people’s livelihood, which said the Western economic system was bad and that China should focus on everyone having enough food to eat. 7) Civil War 1945-1949- The nationalist army greatly outnumbered the communists at first but by 1948 they were almost even. The nationalists had the advantage but blew it with a series of mistakes: 1) They extended their lines and occupied points
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course HIS 340M taught by Professor Li during the Summer '11 term at University of Texas.

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New Culture Movement - 1) New Culture Movement-A movement...

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