Nutrition Midterm Study Guide

Nutrition Midterm Study Guide - Nutrition Midterm Study...

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Nutrition Midterm Study Guide % of kcal from Dietary Goals for Americans Current Average Intake in U.S. Carbohydrates 55%-68% simple: 10% complex: 48% 45% simple: 25% complex: 22% Protein 10%-12% 15%-18% Fat 30% max 37%-40% Six Classes of Nutrients An essential nutrient: must be present in the body for normal bodily functioning, the body cannot produce in sufficient quantities, it must be consumed in the diet. Got to have it, can’t make it, must eat it. 1. Carbohydrates (4 calories in a gram of carbs) Complex Carbohydrates (constructed of glucose units) o Long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber o Also called polysaccharides o Preferred energy source for the body o Starch (grains, rice, pasta, bread, potatoes) o Fiber (non-digestible glucose chains) o Glycogen (human storage form of glucose) o Difference between starch and fiber (cellulose are the chemical bonds that hold the glucose molecules in a chain) bonds between glucose molecules of starch are easily broken by enzymes
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bonds in fiber are indigestive Simple Carbohydrates (sweeteners) o Sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units o The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and hydrogen o Glucose (not very sweet) o Fructose (sweetest simple sugar) o Sucrose (glucose + fructose) o Honey o Corn Syrup o High fructose corn syup o Maple syrup Glucose o A single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy o Known as blood sugar/dextrose o Most important monosaccharide in the human body o Most other monosaccharides and disaccharides become glucose in the body o Glucose from carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most body functions Nerve cells, including those of the brain, depend almost exculsively on glucose for their energy o Insulin is a hormone, which is secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration Regulates glucose entry into all tissues (primarily muscle, liver and adipose cels) Helps regulate glucose metablism
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o The hormon Glucagon is secreted by the pancreas and stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips When blood glucose starts to fall too low, the hormone glucagon triggers the breakdown of the liver glycogen to free glucose o Blood glucose regulation depends mainly on the hormones insulin and glucagons o Although glucose can be converted into body fat, body fat can never be converted into gluclose to feed the brain adequately o Glycemic effect: the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response as compared with pure glucose o 3 glucose functions 1. Meets immediate energy needs (10%) 2. Stored in liver and muscles (60%-90%) depends on diet and physical activity 3. Converts to fat (0-30%) o hyperglycemia: constant high glucose level. Over 125mg/100 ml of blood o hypoglycemia: constant low glucose 40-50mgs/100ml of blood
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2011 for the course ESS 3 taught by Professor Cerial during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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Nutrition Midterm Study Guide - Nutrition Midterm Study...

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