Pyschology 105 Midterm #1 & #2 Study Guide

Pyschology 105 Midterm #1 & #2 Study Guide - Psychology...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 105 Midterm #1 Study Guide Development of Psychology A science involving the description and explanation of changes over time in the structure, thought or behavior of a person Develpoment in relation to a specific ability or trait, not just development Understanding social and physical world Language Emotion Personality Morality Gender 2 types of questions: o 1. Description of change: what is the nature of the earlier and later capacity? Ex. Does an ability change with age? Cross sectional vs. longitudinal designs Cross sectional: compare children at 1 point in time who are of different ages o Advantages: Quick/easy Avoid subject loss o Disadvantages: Uninformative about individuals differences in pattern of development Cohort effects: dealing with different groups of people Ex. 2 groups (3 year old and 4 year old) The 3 year old may have been in a smaller class for a longer period of time Longitudinal: follow one group of children develop, tracking the same individuals across time o Advantages: Reveals individual patterns of change Avoid cohort effects o Disadvantages Time consuming and expensive Subject loss and survivorship effects Subject loss is a problem when the subject loss is NOT random (ex. Older subjects are more likely to drop out)-the relationship between the two variables changes Repeat testing Microgenetic studies: used after researches have found something interesting that is going on between two ages Kind of longitudinal study Involves many repeated measurements of an abilty over a short period of time Change can be observed while it is happening over the course of the experiment itself in some cases Ex. Movie of little boy with ball dropping had to find which hole the ball landed in o 2. Explanation of change: if developmental change is established, why and how does it occur (at the age that it does)? Biology & Environment Theme Biology: genes Environment: everything else (physical and social influence that influence our development) Not either or, more so how is each of these 2 factors impacting the development The active child: the idea that childrens nature might cause them to behave in certain ways and thus experience the world in a particular way, thus contributing to their own development. Biology and environment working together example: o Newborn infants attention pattern to patterns on paddles that have been placed right in front of their face. Researcher moves paddle to side-measure how much the babies like to look at the paddle o Newborns havent had any experience with human face pattern, study really shows their biological reactions o Infants follow a face organization pattern rather than a scrambled blank one o Our expertise with faces is unlearned but is developed by interacting with the environment o Unlearned bias to attend to faces can lead to lots of experience...
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Pyschology 105 Midterm #1 & #2 Study Guide - Psychology...

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