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Classics 36 Midterm Guide

Classics 36 Midterm Guide - Classics 36 Checklist The Epic...

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Classics 36 Checklist The Epic of Gilgamesh Important Peoples, Dates, and Places Mesopotamia (essentially = modern Iraq): means area between the rivers, i.e., Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Sumerians (c.3400-2000 B.C.) in southern Iraq . Created high culture. Writing, irrigation, agricultural systems, complex societies (lived in Mesopotamia, wrote Epic of Gilgamesh) o Epic of Gilgamesh , one of the earlierst known works of literary writing o Uruk=Sumerian city state ziggurat, cuneiform Babylonians (Semitic; c. 2000-1600 B.C.) in central Iraq o Epic found in Assyria was written in Babylonian, a dialect of the Assyrians that was used for literary purposes. Abraham and his family thought to have left southern Mesopotamia c. 1900 B.C. Assyrians (Semitic; c. 1200-600 B.C.) in northern Iraq; established empire extending from western Iran to Egypt; capital city: Nineveh ( Epic of Gilgamesh found in library of Asshurbanipal during excavation of site) Kings from Sumeria Lugulbanda: 3rd ruler of the first post-diluvian dynasty of Uruk Gilgamesh: 5th ruler of the first post-diluvian dynasty of Uruk (historical king c. 2700 B.C.) Some Important Gods Anu: god of high heavens Enlil : (primus inter pare)first among equals. God of Earth. The son of Anu. Superior deity. Carries the tablets of destiny, is a wind god. Seperated heaven and earth, took the earth as his portion while Anu took heaven. Does not want Enkidu and Gilgamesh to explore the northern mountains, he has a summer palace there which a monster (Humbaba) protects . Becomes angry with Enkidu and Gilgamesh kill Humbaba. Creator of flood Sin : moon god. Shamash sun god/justice. Supports Enkidu and Gilgamesh going to the mountains to find new territory. He sends his 13 winds to bind Humbaba as he is captured by Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Ishtar : goddess of love (between men and women), fertility and war. Offers to marry Gilgamesh, but he declines. Nothing good happens to those who have coupled with Ishtar. So, Gilgamesh smartly declines but insults the goddess. Goes to the counsel of gods and asks that Gilgamesh and the people of Uruk be punished. Ereshkigal (also called Irkalla) : lower hierarchical god. Goddess of the underworld Ea : god of sweet waters and wisdom. Warns Utnapishtim that the gods were going to start a flood
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Annunaki : Erishkegal’s helper. Gods of the undeworld, judges of the dead and offpring of Anu. Aruru :goddess of creation. creates Enkidu out of clay. Ninsun : Gilgamesh’s mother, minor goddess . Geographical Regions Associated with Divinities An(u) : heaven Ki : earth Kur : underworld river House of Death/Dust: occurs in Enkidu’s dream, where the dead wear feathers like birds, they eat clay and do without light. Other Important Characters in the Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh : King of Uruk. 2/3 God, 1/3 human. He is not a good king. People are praying to the gods for someone to come a get rid of Gilgamesh becaue he is sleeping with all of the virgins. “Prima Nocte”=on the first night. The bride, on the first night, is supposed to be divirginized by her husband. Gilgamesh has slept with all the virgins,
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Classics 36 Midterm Guide - Classics 36 Checklist The Epic...

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