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Psychology 102 Midterm Study Guide

Psychology 102 Midterm Study Guide - Psychology 102 Midterm...

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Psychology 102 Midterm Study Guide Psychological Phenomena Examples: Autokinetic Effect (Sharif): conformity, we behave different when we are by ourselves than with other people. Effects of certain kinds of social influence o Ask subject to look at the line on the board and say how long it is. The researcher then brings in paid confederates who claim the line is longer than what the subject thought. Studies show that the subject conforms to the confederates’ answers. Whenever there are tasks where the answer is uncertain, we rely on the others. People change what they believe they see Impression Formation (Asch): artificial study of people’s impression. Told participants to make an impression of someone based on a list of words. Traits can change the things we know (cold vs. warm). Also asked participants “How much would you like this person”, used the same words/traits but in different order. Primacy effect: first impressions make a big difference o Subjects viewing the list containing the word “warm” formed na impression of the person as very generous, happy and friendly. By contrast, subjects who saw the list containing the word “cold” formed an impression of the person as quite unhappy and unfriendly. o These words “warm” and “cold”, which Asch labeled “central traits”, appear to be words around which people organize their impressions. o This organizing function is due to these specific words-not to simply any positive or negative wordsp laced in the middle of the list Bystander Effect (Darley Latone): observation of a real life event of a woman who is murdered while about 30 people are watching. Why did no body help? Social Psychology: the scientific study of how we think about (Asch) relate to (Darley) and influence (Sharif) one another. The scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior and through in social situations. Methods: scientific approach to social psychology. Sociology vs. social psychoogy: o Both interested in social behavior o Both study how people relate to and think about each other
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o Sociology tends to rely on large groups using field studies. They ask large groups of people (ex. Men vs. women) how they think o Social psychology is also interested in people’s beliefs but it focuses more on the individual’s beliefs. o Focus is the same however the approach is different. Methodologies o Field Studies Non-artificial, ecologically valid. Study people’s natural behavior in its natural context Looks at people in the real world with real situations. Don’t have experimental control over outside factors Most common techniques of field studies of humans is to ask questions via surveys. Surveys are only successful when they are random and representative.
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Psychology 102 Midterm Study Guide - Psychology 102 Midterm...

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