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Global Studies Lecture Notes

Global Studies Lecture Notes - Global Studies Lecture 5...

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Global Studies: Lecture 5 Religion and Empire Empire and Globalization-The Mongols. Empire Defined o Multiplicity of cultures unified under domination of single governance. Allow their allegience to some figure o System of governance based on conquest: seeks expansions, wants to grow larger and incorporate more and more peoples o Foreign peoples ruled by a dynastic, metropolitan (city), or clannish state which is continually self expanding o Political Justification=extend state’s power thru subjugation of other people and exploitation of their resources o Examples: Han in China, Greece, Macedonian Alexander the Great, Rome, Bantu in Africa-modern examples=British Empire (owned ¼ of the globe and its peoples), German Empire, Russian Empire, French Empire, American Empire The Mongols Peoples o Herders pressing at northern frontiers of China o Organized in family clans by military leaders (disorganized for the most part) o Using iron stirrup to sit themselves in saddle of a horse(used technology to their advantage) o Because of abilities as equestrians and archers, formed tightly knit fighting units capable of riding in close formation (terrific archers and horse riders, brilliant military organization)-moved across spaces that had never been trasversed at a great speed, could spread terror and fear. Became one of the world’s most terror producing forces o Europeans named this fighting force a “horde” Temuchin’s Rise o Born 1162, died 1227 produced two sons (expanded the empire to the extent that it reached) o After long period of tribal conflict and intrigue, succeeded in the unprecedented feat of unifying all Mongol peoples o Declared Khan of Kangs and given name Genghis Kan, 1206. o Attacks north China, dominates after 3 years War with Persia 1218-1222 o War started after Persians put Mongol emissaries sent by Genghis Khan to death
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o Became war of annihilation on both sides (mongols stopped at nothing against anyone who showed resistance) o Ghengis Khan sent Mongol detachment to pursue Shah across his own empire. o Following the conquest of Persia, Mongol encircled the Capsian sea. Why were the Mongol Aermis so successful? o Great expertise and endurance as horseman and warriors gave them mobility unherd of by armies of the time-up to 100 miles/day o Military discipline enabled them to coordinate armies separated by great distances not equaled against until WW2 o Extremely ruthless in battle o Employed a practical, readilly assimilated, advanced technology o Sense of honor and loyalty, and respect for these qualities in others, even in opponents Mongol Rule o Ruthless extermination of those who resisted rule o Generally tolerant in absence of resistance o Cities often left under control of native governors o As Nestorian Christians, consolidated rule by practicing religious tolerance, thus gaining support of minorities oppressed by Moslems.
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