21-SAsia-2(GEOG142) - SOUTH ASIA II (CHAPTER 8: 372-417)...

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Unformatted text preview: SOUTH ASIA II (CHAPTER 8: 372-417) KEY CONCEPTS APPLICABLE TO THE REALM CENTRIPETAL - CENTRIFUGAL FORCES FORWARD CAPITAL - ISLAMABAD IRREDENTISM PATHANS (OR PASHTUNS) OF PAKISTAN RELATED TO PEOPLES OF CENTRAL AFGHANISTAN FEDERAL SYSTEM ADOPTED BY INDIA IN 1947 PROVIDES REGIONS AND PEOPLES WITH SOME AUTONOMY AND IDENTITY INDIA The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru brought independence in 1947. INDIA Democratic Federal Government Independent 1947 Capital New Delhi 28 states, 6 Union Territories & Capital Territory 3 new small states in 2000 protect local traditions 1.039 billion people Soon become the worlds most populous Diverse cultures, languages, large minorities Hindi official language/English the Lingua Franca Federal systems failed in Africa INDIA Population: 1,080,264,388 (July 2005 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.2% 15-64 years: 63.9% 65 years and over: 4.9% (2005 est.) Population growth rate: 1.4% (2005 est.) INDIA Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land Natural hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources INDIA Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit Administrative divisions: 28 states and 7 union territories INDIA GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2004 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23.6% industry: 28.4% services: 48% (2002 est.) INDIA The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6.8% since 1994 India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers...
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2011 for the course GEOG 142 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '11 term at Mott Community College.

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21-SAsia-2(GEOG142) - SOUTH ASIA II (CHAPTER 8: 372-417)...

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