22-EAsia-1(GEOG142) - EAST ASIA (CHAPTER 9: 418-485)...

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Unformatted text preview: EAST ASIA (CHAPTER 9: 418-485) Source: CIA fact page EAST ASIA MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF EAST ASIA WORLD’S MOST POPULOUS REALM JAKOTA TRIANGLE (JAPAN-SOUTH KOREATAIWAN) LIES AT THE VANGUARD OF PACIFIC RIM DEVELOPMENT POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FORCES CONTINUE TO TRANSFORM TRADITIONAL CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. INTENSIFYING REGIONAL DISPARITIES POPULATION CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EAST, SITUATED IN RIVER BASINS POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY REVEALS INSTABILITY. REGIONS OF THE REALM CHINA PROPER- EASTERN HALF; THE CORE XIZANG (TIBET)- TALL MOUNTAINS AND HIGH PLATEAUS; SPARSELY POPULATED XINJIANG- VAST DESERT BASIN AND MOUNTAIN RIMS; A CULTURAL CONTACT ZONE MONGOLIA- A DESERT, BUFFER STATE THE JAKOTA TRIANGLE JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA, TAIWAN RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT E A S T A S I A China Population Growth rate Children/women Life exp. 1,306,313,812 .58% 1.72 72 years (2005) est. GDP per capita agr. Ind. serv. $5,600 49% 22% 29% (2003) est. Source: CIA – World Fact book PHYSIOGRAPHY TOTAL AREA IS ABOUT 3.6 MILLION SQ MI LONGITUDINAL EXTENT IS COMPARABLE TO THE US; LATITUDINAL RANGE FROM NORTHERN QUEBEC TO CENTRAL CARIBBEAN BORDERED (SURROUNDED) BY OCEAN, HIGH MOUNTAINS, STEPPE COUNTRY, AND DESERT VAST AND VARIED TOPOGRAPHY CLIMATE TYPES INCLUDE: B (DRY); C (HUMID TEMPERATE); D (HUMID COLD); AND H (UNCLASSIFIED HIGHLANDS) PHYSIOGRAPHY Xizang (Tibet) Earthquakes Continuous tremors Folded terrain-colliding Eurasian & Indian Plates Source of numerous rivers from melt water Gobi Desert Dry from the Himalayan Mountain Effect Deep River Valleys Fertile Alluvial River Valleys Three Gorges PHYSIOGRAPHY p.422 CLIMATE COMPARISON Cold Warm Dry Wet Comparative Locations Historical Geography E Asian human settlement 500,000 yrs ago Migration from Africa Settlement in N America 15-40,000 yrs ago End of migration for ??? reasons CHINA’S POLITICAL MAP 4 CENTRAL-GOVERNMENT-ADMINISTERED MUNICIPALITIES BEIJING (CAPITAL); TIANJIN (PORT CITY); SHANGHI (LARGEST CITY); CHONGQUING (INTERIOR RIVER PORT) 5 AUTONOMOUS REGIONS NEI MONGOL (INNER MONGOLIA); NINGXIA HUI; XINJIANG UYGUR (NW); GUANGXI ZHUANG (SOUTH); XIZANG (TIBET) 22 PROVINCES GROW IN SIZE FROM EAST TO WEST 1 SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION XIANGGANG (FORMERLY HONG KONG) POLITICAL DIVISIONS ETHNIC GROUPS ETHNIC GROUPS Han Chinese Zhuang Uygur Hiu Yi Tibetan Miao Manchu Mongol Buyi Korean 91.9% 8.1% ETHNOLINGUISTIC AREAS LANGUAGES CHINESE IS ONE OF THE WORLD’S OLDEST ACTIVE LANGUAGES. SPOKEN CHINESE VARIES DIALECT TO DIALECT (not mutually intelligible), ALTHOUGH THE CHARACTERS (over 50,000) USED TO REPRESENT THE LANGUAGE REMAIN THE SAME. SINCE CHINESE IS WRITTEN IN CHARACTERS RATHER THAN BY A PHONETIC ALPHABET, CHINESE WORDS MUST BE TRANSLITERATED SO FOREIGNERS CAN PRONOUNCE THEM. THE PINYIN SYSTEM ENABLED LANGUAGE TO BE A CENTRIPETAL FORCE ADOPTED IN 1958 BASED ON PRONUNCIATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN NORTHERN MANDARIN ESTABLISHED A STANDARD FORM OF LANGUAGE THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY PINYIN LITERALLY, “SPELL SOUNDS” DEVELOPED IN THE PRC THE MOST ACCEPTED SYSTEM OF ROMANIZING CHINESE Chinese Translation Bei Nan Xi Dong Jing Shan He Jiang North South West East Capital Mountain River (in the north) River (in the south) CHINESE PERSPECTIVES ONE OF THE WORLD’S GREAT CULTURE HEARTHS CONTINUOUS CIVILIZATION FOR OVER 4,000 YEARS VIEW OF CHINA AS THE CENTER OF THE CIVILIZED WORLD EASTERN VS WESTERN BIAS INWARD LOOKING CLOSED SOCIETY The Empire CHINA’S RELATIVE LOCATION ISOLATION NATURAL PROTECTIVE BARRIERS DISTANCE INWARD LOOKING (CENTRAL KINGDOM) WITH MINOR INCIDENCES OF CULTURAL DIFFUSION EFFECTS OF ONE OCEAN • A HISTORY OF EMPERORS WHO RESTRICTED USE OF THE COASTLINE, EXCEPT IN LOCAL CIRCUMSTANCES • TODAY THE OCEAN IS PLAYING A MAJOR ROLE IN THE ECONOMIC (AND CULTURAL) TRANSFORMATION OF COASTAL CHINA. History Dynasties that date back 3-4000 years Iterations between Imperial Dynasties & divisive Feudal periods Always reuniting as a strong mostly dictatorial state 1400’s Ming Dynasty European colonialists brought products that were not of the quality of Chinese silk, porcelain or tea Chinese made more sophisticated & larger ships 1839-1842 Opium War Importing of Indian opium from British British gain control over numerous ports & territory including Hong Kong History Boxer Rebellion 1900-Rejection of Foreign colonial powers-Chinese lost After WWI North-Developing Communist Government Mao Zedong South-Nationalist Government of Sun Yat-sen North & South cooperate to reduce role of foreigners by 1927 1928 Chiang Kai-shek Nationalist & country’s leader WWII Japanese control China Post WWII Communists drive Nationalist to Taiwan 1948-1949 Mao reigns from 1949-1976 as Communist leader COLONIAL SPHERES EXTRATERRITORIALITY A DOCTRINE OF EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL LAW EMPLOYED IN CHINA DURING THE LATE 1800s IMMUNITY FROM LOCAL JURISDICTION EROSION OF CHINESE SOVEREIGNTY 90 DISTINCT ENCLAVES EVOLVED OPENING to the WEST Communist Era Control fed off Isolation & Control 1970’s Society opened Only a few dozen foreigners in the country Decision to open up to the western world 1972 President Nixon invited to Beijing Interaction with west Education Tourism Commerce Investment 1989 pro-democracy movement quelled by government Fear of Extraterritoriality CONFUCIUS CHINA’S MOST INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHER AND TEACHER 551- 479 BC- TOOK ON SPIRITUAL PROPORTIONS AFTER HIS DEATH- CONFUCIANISM FOCUSED ON THE SUFFERING OF ORDINARY PEOPLE DURING THE ZHOU DYNASTY EMPHASIZED THAT HUMAN VIRTUES, RATHER THAN GODLY CONNECTIONS, SHOULD DETERMINE A PERSON’S PLACE IN SOCIETY TEACHINGS HAVE DOMINATED CHINESE LIFE AND THOUGHT FOR MORE THAN 20 CENTURIES POPULATION 1,249,000,000 (1998) 1,294,000,000 (2002) 1,306,000,000 (2005) Annual growth rate 0.58% (1970s - 3%) Life expectancy: 69 (males), 73 (females) TFR 1.72 born/women (2005) Physiological density-3,594 people/sq mi Only 10% of the land is arable and 80% of the population lives on this land Distribution: western 2/3s is sparsely populated (minorities) POPULATION DENSITY W h at i f t he w o rl d we r e a v i v d T n I C 3 h h g a l u c f i d 2 n a t s i r 4 s N h n l e t s a h v e y g a e o r l a A o p e T . s r y t l o e h c p o e m o e l h t m o 1n6e 5, n a i s p a J Ma n d n i r aE 9 1 s M o o c U O 3 2 1 1 A 1 o 7 A 2 3 d A w T h t T b v a p W e o dVi l r ge a l P o r ? t c e j w s i b e p g a v a s i e g a l i H . e o w v e h t , r e v s i g a l i e h n E t e h t r a m s e o w f I . h t e v a w e n g a l i o t r e h , d e r w s i 1 f u o 0 h t e c u 0 w e d l 0 o b n i d l r o e h u b a y l e r n a t i . w s t h t i x e l a n t s i g h u m n a M n e n a d Wo m a n 5 2 W[ G o 0 p a r m4 h n a 8 Me n 0 P o s e c a l Or f g i n i 5 1 n a c2 i r f 2 s 4 L n i t a A 8m 4 4e n a c i r s E n r e t s a W / n r t s e 92 5u E o r p n a e s h t r A me n a c i r sA G ur s h s ] [ pr at n i l a N w e Z n l a e d s r e La n g ua g e o f h r e u u m e r f l a n w r d n t a c i b e u g b p T . h d e s a o o t l s i v B ; f n g a l i e y l w e g c a o P , i l u o n d l u t r o f s t h g h r v a u o f l g a e , s o f d t a e r u o l a e r f 8 n a 6 G , s e mn r e 8a 3 , F n e r6 4 h c n a , 5 d 8 2 0 3 07 o h t n a l r e g u g a . s e n gH h [i s i l G n rd S h p ] a p a i n R h s i u n a i s A b a r c i R g i l e on i 7 8 1 6 7 1 3 2 6 2 4 5 3 8 6 ms e l s n o n gG i l e [ iH r o r i hs pu an d ]B u us d d h t a he i t s i t s w e J s o h t r e Age R / pr e o d uc o i t n v i t h r e 6 o d e o l a 0 h t f v h t f p 1 e . s c i m o e 0 d e i r a p 0 w o r a e l 0 o v p mp h t r o e n g a e o n i e l 6 f h t 5 v e . g a l i h c r a e v a d l i o t s c a n e r . w e b Mo b a b r a s e i y i l a t r o n r h c a e y r a e o h t f 3 e 3 0 h c d l i n e r m i e r a mu n d e z i g a n i a n i t s o i t c e f n . s oa pa l oi em l b . s e i n k de v or c e c e f e o yde . . r y . r a . n n i h t v e g a l i h e H s a V I b , u h i t n s a o d t v e o l e p d e n i o t L n e f i To wn n o 0 me f h t p 1 2 r o h t e r 0 p n 0 o c e l o 0 v i c e r n n p e o r t . ) o e n 7 l p y l 5 o e l 2 % w %f o n o h t u a h t f w e o w h t l a e m h t l a e . o . b B ( s e l i u o t h t f o 7 e s 0 5 k o o n i u h f g o t d a e w n u . r a h t e . e a s t l d r i o h t f p e o e p h e l v a o t s c a e n a e l c e f a s , L n a d/ Hou ng i s d w n a l i d g n i H . o u w v r e g a l i h t , r e d s i e o n i s a r c e h t g n a l r e p a r d d i b t s e r a y l . e n a , d h t e g a l i 0 o s e r c h e s a o r c f o t s a w f p o l a t u s n 6 f o . e r d 0 , d . 0 n a l 0 d o s e r c a . n a l f d . w g a r e 0 h o s e r c a u p d f d l o u , t r s e v i l n n i e h d u 6 s p , a r b o s e r c v a t s n a l f m e d n e d r . n a t h d o u h t n i s w r e g n l e t s a . d . m3 r w 8 s e t a c i a n n i d e % g b o 6 y o z l r e s t i f 0 h t 4 % 2 e 0 o 7 %o n a l f 0 d h o r c s t i f w , n a t s e p h t i d n a l 1 m. d 7 o % w t s o d f l e h t f p , z l i t r f o e p n i e l o d l e i 8 p o % . e l n o h t f n l t a o f e d o o s i d n o t h t d e f d r i h t h t o e o a h t h t f 7 r e n a l e 3 d 0 o p w o e n p d T . e l h e M P . c s i op e Glr [ e p a h h c a e o . s r e d l . s r e i L g o b r f s e o t c n a i m . r G , s w y r a n a s d B x e s i u s l a Ra p e u s r 1 ( oi f d r e f h 4o) nt m o s f o e m e m e ni dt e t a p et w d e h p a r w . e on u e r an n h e e e i e e f a 8e . e h t r va l oh 1v ga g h t i b r n e b a o l o p a r f v r a u o c s i e c i 6 t m h t e l s 7 m n a o d e t i 1 h t f b 8 u r a c s e y y n i t l o s s r e o c a me d l n o . v n o c i h t e n v e . mk t c i n o w . s B u dg t e 1a , a 0n0 uga oue d w n s 0n b l o t s g e e o f n 3 s Md i w po at $ n a o l n aD r o s r a l o s r e 2 9 n 0 , h s ' 0 w e r a 0 o g u o d l o t s e b h d e $ e h t l a u 3 e r o i t a c 0 n 0 0 G [ p a r h h t b e o d r W e f o n i se o s r ph ea t v e g a l h t v s a r e h l a r e o d l n i g o s f pw as e e o e nos v r p a g l i h e. n e s a o c e r a s n u o r t g d e l h b n y u h t s e l w r a c n a p e 1 o 0 n 0 y r o t h t f d p e o r t s o e y p v e . e l y r Ed g h t uc n i o i t a g w n/ C h t i o n i h t mp v e g a l i ut s r e 3 e m i t . s e n a 0 1 p 0 o e p o e n a c l p n w e l o o d a e r t u . d l h v a o c a e g e l d e u o i t a c n p t a 0 . m o s r e o s r e 0 i n n 3 g w p s i h t o o r h t f b a e u b m e o d l b a w u h y l e i 2 t v a n v r 0 o c a e o h t s i 0 , m o c t ! e s i 0 p n 0 u n 0 , r e t d t c e 0 o t 0 h t p n i e o n r e t p t e o c l n n d t c e o t h t l Wh a T s i t h ma I g n i h t e h t a o i t a p e r m o n s e r n i a p h s t n i u p e g o i t n a l A 5s 8s n a5 i R u n a i s n 3 p e c a r t d y l 0 8 n 6 5 0 3pf 2 1 b e a o r D I p S o s r e w n 0 3 n i r b w e d 1 7 T h 9 4 0 8 O 2 n 0 n l t a v e g i h t g e d h n I o s o g s i o r v e 0 v a 0 d g a l i T . e h s i o l a e h c e n i a r u p y 2 s e c 7 5 5 3 1 T S 0 u f e r D p a r 1 6 O 8 T Wi h t n u o c F d e 3 1 n 0 10/ o ,4 y l % $e 1 v E $ h c a 1 g a l i 8e h p 3 5 n i O Tc h w r a e lu v i l n i 2 L h t s e 0 n i A T 1 h n r e t u s P 2 0 0 o h t f p e D r p g sa o eu h e l v d i r t e m u j i r a n a o a n n i e c 4 1 9 7 0 9 % 8 o ) o h t f u n t e n e t r g a g a m s r e mk s r e o o k ma e o e u j i r h c r n a w e o a b a t n o c d a u ( y l i a ng i s r e t Fa S ( s t c n e nb i t yr d a e ) s r e 0 p w f I 1 , e o t s a h t p o l k c n i e l o p h t k g w e h l t a 1 , o s c a f e 0 d l r h t f p n a 6 e o e d b p h t o l i p l y e n p r e w 6 ( g a o c r e * o , e n 1 n i a t 0 b d e * 2 k a t v e h s 0 m y r 1 : t e 2 o c e s h t ) 6 8 n b e h t , n a d o w r e d ( o b l i h a n k 2 y f l a d i s e w 3 s r a o e b l i o l i b ) h c a f 3 e n y h s 0 x h 1 , ) t e k p a r i t e 6 mt o n i f I e h p h s o k c i o t e l n i , u 2 h t d a s r o l ) Y A y a i r t ( o c u o l @ n p h ) f . c r n i a t 6 l a , w d e b o n i o i d l r b a u c s ' n a r p n e r d o e p t n p o w e A . e l p 1 n u 0 d o i t a l k h c a e n m g n s i f h t b a s e h t k c i o a t s e v t l a f I h c 5 ( o u 0 p e n q s o e k u p A . m e r a q x l p a s r t e u W p u d e i o r n i @t s c t ( r e x o a g m i g a . h c , y l e t o h s a ) o r n h / s i n o r e o c . u w m) p n y h t mo q o f g e u o l r u e h , t b n a w q e C ! e m a o u o l i u e n d l w e i m b o K p ) ! s l i b a e u u p o d l o r u b u r x o t v e l s m, i n y r e o c ( y l t a m e v d 4 o l i y r e @o e 2 n o l t 6 n p b W h Ta h e i e . p r e o l i o s r e n h f i t n6: ps o7 p5l m o e m e e 2o0 r f mf a t e e op ve i d= w a( hs tr ft m a v) , dt e i doa a n l ei ow l i m h t oh mc ys ? lre oI 1 x s l a f o T h n f mo l i f w r e g w v i t a o u ! e u d l d l b b 4 e 2 e 0 3 5 . 3 , mi 3 o l 3 n 3 , k s 3 m w h t T o h t i w o u h c t a u n s h t p e l s d mi l f s i n 6 w t g 6 o n i t a e , 1 u g y d l o 9 , s r a e k a t n r me 9 y o 7 o n 2 h t 2 , m i t r e n a s C ur n e W t o d l r Po pu on i t a l T h w e o d l r p o p u o i t a l n u s i p d d e t a v e Gu bo t s e o k ni G h t s k e ue e t ys o ot o i kl b t h P . e t s v s a e e b t s e o o k A h c r v i 2 1 e m d e S bi a n e gc : s t k G u h t E o J e n i S k i l c y r e t o u h t o u b o J ' e u m r sU m e r n l i a c n L d l i a g b i rs b ' t s i d ! l e u u b s e r b o t l e s n w c : , b i r e h t p b v l r i e d . i s a . s e d e t a o f y r e 3 0 o c e s e r o n i * h t b a 9 d i s o ) s e o h c a e f k w h t i e y a o r a e w , k , t a l n i g 1 t a 0 p u T f o x e 5 t u l . s a 0 me 0 C ! q s o l r a u T s y a i r t f e n i g o n y l o n g i r u 8 n i a s r 0 o t , o c . t e u h m n o T . b . d u h ) r n a s h e d u n5. s o c e n d o s o f o 3 = ( h 2 o 5 u 3 . o l s r mi n o l g n 2 o e d 2 u o s d . ) t ma y d e o s y a 2 r T ( . s h n d s o e p e k s ma m n g a t e . mi ) s e l s i e l e l a ( y t i m e g e? ONE CHILD POLICY Instituted in late 1970’s Party forced abortions Loss of privileges in housing & education 1980’s policy relaxed due to foreign criticism EVIDENCE OF CHINA’S ONE CHILD PROGRAM W h at i f t he w o rl d we r e a v i v d T n I C 3 h h g a l u c f i d 2 n a t s i r 4 s N h n l e t s a h v e y g a e o r l a A o p e T . s r y t l o e h c p o e m o e l h t m o 1n6e 5, n a i s p a J Ma n d n i r aE 9 1 s M o o c U O 3 2 1 1 A 1 o 7 A 2 3 d A w T h t T b v a p W e o dVi l r ge a l P o r ? t c e j w s i b e p g a v a s i e g a l i H . e o w v e h t , r e v s i g a l i e h n E t e h t r a m s e o w f I . h t e v a w e n g a l i o t r e h , d e r w s i 1 f u o 0 h t e c u 0 w e d l 0 o b n i d l r o e h u b a y l e r n a t i . w s t h t i x e l a n t s i g h u m n a M n e n a d Wo m a n 5 2 W[ G o 0 p a r m4 h n a 8 Me n 0 P o s e c a l Or f g i n i 5 1 n a c2 i r f 2 s 4 L n i t a A 8m 4 4e n a c i r s E n r e t s a W / n r t s e 92 5u E o r p n a e s h t r A me n a c i r sA G ur s h s ] [ pr at n i l a N w e Z n l a e d s r e La n g ua g e o f h r e u u m e r f l a n w r d n t a c i b e u g b p T . h d e s a o o t l s i v B ; f n g a l i e y l w e g c a o P , i l u o n d l u t r o f s t h g h r v a u o f l g a e , s o f d t a e r u o l a e r f 8 n a 6 G , s e mn r e 8a 3 , F n e r6 4 h c n a , 5 d 8 2 0 3 07 o h t n a l r e g u g a . s e n gH h [i s i l G n rd S h p ] a p a i n R h s i u n a i s A b a r c i R g i l e on i 7 8 1 6 7 1 3 2 6 2 4 5 3 8 6 ms e l s n o n gG i l e [ iH r o r i hs pu an d ]B u us d d h t a he i t s i t s w e J s o h t r e Age R / pr e o d uc o i t n v i t h r e 6 o d e o l a 0 h t f v h t f p 1 e . s c i m o e 0 d e i r a p 0 w o r a e l 0 o v p mp h t r o e n g a e o n i e l 6 f h t 5 v e . g a l i h c r a e v a d l i o t s c a n e r . w e b Mo b a b r a s e i y i l a t r o n r h c a e y r a e o h t f 3 e 3 0 h c d l i n e r m i e r a mu n d e z i g a n i a n i t s o i t c e f n . s oa pa l oi em l b . s e i n k de v or c e c e f e o yde . . r y . r a . n n i h t v e g a l i h e H s a V I b , u h i t n s a o d t v e o l e p d e n i o t L n e f i To wn n o 0 me f h t p 1 2 r o h t e r 0 p n 0 o c e l o 0 v i c e r n n p e o r t . ) o e n 7 l p y l 5 o e l 2 % w %f o n o h t u a h t f w e o w h t l a e m h t l a e . o . b B ( s e l i u o t h t f o 7 e s 0 5 k o o n i u h f g o t d a e w n u . r a h t e . e a s t l d r i o h t f p e o e p h e l v a o t s c a e n a e l c e f a s , L n a d/ Hou ng i s d w n a l i d g n i H . o u w v r e g a l i h t , r e d s i e o n i s a r c e h t g n a l r e p a r d d i b t s e r a y l . e n a , d h t e g a l i 0 o s e r c h e s a o r c f o t s a w f p o l a t u s n 6 f o . e r d 0 , d . 0 n a l 0 d o s e r c a . n a l f d . w g a r e 0 h o s e r c a u p d f d l o u , t r s e v i l n n i e h d u 6 s p , a r b o s e r c v a t s n a l f m e d n e d r . n a t h d o u h t n i s w r e g n l e t s a . d . m3 r w 8 s e t a c i a n n i d e % g b o 6 y o z l r e s t i f 0 h t 4 % 2 e 0 o 7 %o n a l f 0 d h o r c s t i f w , n a t s e p h t i d n a l 1 m. d 7 o % w t s o d f l e h t f p , z l i t r f o e p n i e l o d l e i 8 p o % . e l n o h t f n l t a o f e d o o s i d n o t h t d e f d r i h t h t o e o a h t h t f 7 r e n a l e 3 d 0 o p w o e n p d T . e l h e M P . c s i op e Glr [ e p a h h c a e o . s r e d l . s r e i L g o b r f s e o t c n a i m . r G , s w y r a n a s d B x e s i u s l a Ra p e u s r 1 ( oi f d r e f h 4o) nt m o s f o e m e m e ni dt e t a p et w d e h p a r w . e on u e r an n h e e e i e e f a 8e . e h t r va l oh 1v ga g h t i b r n e b a o l o p a r f v r a u o c s i e c i 6 t m h t e l s 7 m n a o d e t i 1 h t f b 8 u r a c s e y y n i t l o s s r e o c a me d l n o . v n o c i h t e n v e . mk t c i n o w . s B u dg t e 1a , a 0n0 uga oue d w n s 0n b l o t s g e e o f n 3 s Md i w po at $ n a o l n aD r o s r a l o s r e 2 9 n 0 , h s ' 0 w e r a 0 o g u o d l o t s e b h d e $ e h t l a u 3 e r o i t a c 0 n 0 0 G [ p a r h h t b e o d r W e f o n i se o s r ph ea t v e g a l h t v s a r e h l a r e o d l n i g o s f pw as e e o e nos v r p a g l i h e. n e s a o c e r a s n u o r t g d e l h b n y u h t s e l w r a c n a p e 1 o 0 n 0 y r o t h t f d p e o r t s o e y p v e . e l y r Ed g h t uc n i o i t a g w n/ C h t i o n i h t mp v e g a l i ut s r e 3 e m i t . s e n a 0 1 p 0 o e p o e n a c l p n w e l o o d a e r t u . d l h v a o c a e g e l d e u o i t a c n p t a 0 . m o s r e o s r e 0 i n n 3 g w p s i h t o o r h t f b a e u b m e o d l b a w u h y l e i 2 t v a n v r 0 o c a e o h t s i 0 , m o c t ! e s i 0 p n 0 u n 0 , r e t d t c e 0 o t 0 h t p n i e o n r e t p t e o c l n n d t c e o t h t l Wh a T s i t h ma I g n i h t e h t a o i t a p e r m o n s e r n i a p h s t n i u p e g o i t n a l A 5s 8s n a5 i R u n a i s n 3 p e c a r t d y l 0 8 n 6 5 0 3pf 2 1 b e a o r D I p S o s r e w n 0 3 n i r b w e d 1 7 T h 9 4 0 8 O 2 n 0 n l t a v e g i h t g e d h n I o s o g s i o r v e 0 v a 0 d g a l i T . e h s i o l a e h c e n i a r u p y 2 s e c 7 5 5 3 1 T S 0 u f e r D p a r 1 6 O 8 T Wi h t n u o c F d e 3 1 n 0 10/ o ,4 y l % $e 1 v E $ h c a 1 g a l i 8e h p 3 5 n i O Tc h w r a e lu v i l n i 2 L h t s e 0 n i A T 1 h n r e t u s P 2 0 0 o h t f p e D r p g sa o eu h e l v d i r t e m u j i r a n a o a n n i e c 4 1 9 7 0 9 % 8 o ) o h t f u n t e n e t r g a g a m s r e mk s r e o o k ma e o e u j i r h c r n a w e o a b a t n o c d a u ( y l i a ng i s r e t Fa S ( s t c n e nb i t yr d a e ) s r e 0 p w f I 1 , e o t s a h t p o l k c n i e l o p h t k g w e h l t a 1 , o s c a f e 0 d l r h t f p n a 6 e o e d b p h t o l i p l y e n p r e w 6 ( g a o c r e * o , e n 1 n i a t 0 b d e * 2 k a t v e h s 0 m y r 1 : t e 2 o c e s h t ) 6 8 n b e h t , n a d o w r e d ( o b l i h a n k 2 y f l a d i s e w 3 s r a o e b l i o l i b ) h c a f 3 e n y h s 0 x h 1 , ) t e k p a r i t e 6 mt o n i f I e h p h s o k c i o t e l n i , u 2 h t d a s r o l ) Y A y a i r t ( o c u o l @ n p h ) f . c r n i a t 6 l a , w d e b o n i o i d l r b a u c s ' n a r p n e r d o e p t n p o w e A . e l p 1 n u 0 d o i t a l k h c a e n m g n s i f h t b a s e h t k c i o a t s e v t l a f I h c 5 ( o u 0 p e n q s o e k u p A . m e r a q x l p a s r t e u W p u d e i o r n i @t s c t ( r e x o a g m i g a . h c , y l e t o h s a ) o r n h / s i n o r e o c . u w m) p n y h t mo q o f g e u o l r u e h , t b n a w q e C ! e m a o u o l i u e n d l w e i m b o K p ) ! s l i b a e u u p o d l o r u b u r x o t v e l s m, i n y r e o c ( y l t a m e v d 4 o l i y r e @o e 2 n o l t 6 n p b W h Ta h e i e . p r e o l i o s r e n h f i t n6: ps o7 p5l m o e m e e 2o0 r f mf a t e e op ve i d= w a( hs tr ft m a v) , dt e i doa a n l ei ow l i m h t oh mc ys ? lre oI 1 x s l a f o T h n f mo l i f w r e g w v i t a o u ! e u d l d l b b 4 e 2 e 0 3 5 . 3 , mi 3 o l 3 n 3 , k s 3 m w h t T o h t i w o u h c t a u n s h t p e l s d mi l f s i n 6 w t g 6 o n i t a e , 1 u g y d l o 9 , s r a e k a t n r me 9 y o 7 o n 2 h t 2 , m i t r e n a s C ur n e W t o d l r Po pu on i t a l T h w e o d l r p o p u o i t a l n u s i p d d e t a v e Gu bo t s e o k ni G h t s k e ue e t ys o ot o i kl b t h P . e t s v s a e e b t s e o o k A h c r v i 2 1 e m d e S bi a n e gc : s t k G u h t E o J e n i S k i l c y r e t o u h t o u b o J ' e u m r sU m e r n l i a c n L d l i a g b i rs b ' t s i d ! l e u u b s e r b o t l e s n w c : , b i r e h t p b v l r i e d . i s a . s e d e t a o f y r e 3 0 o c e s e r o n i * h t b a 9 d i s o ) s e o h c a e f k w h t i e y a o r a e w , k , t a l n i g 1 t a 0 p u T f o x e 5 t u l . s a 0 me 0 C ! q s o l r a u T s y a i r t f e n i g o n y l o n g i r u 8 n i a s r 0 o t , o c . t e u h m n o T . b . d u h ) r n a s h e d u n5. s o c e n d o s o f o 3 = ( h 2 o 5 u 3 . o l s r mi n o l g n 2 o e d 2 u o s d . ) t ma y d e o s y a 2 r T ( . s h n d s o e p e k s ma m n g a t e . mi ) s e l s i e l e l a ( y t i m e g e? URBAN CHINA 360 MILLION CHINESE LIVE IN CITIES 31% URBANIZED 69% RURAL LARGEST CITIES ARE INSIGNIFICANT ON A GLOBAL SCALE URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AIR POLLUTION CONGESTION WATER POLLUTION ECONOMIC PROBLEMS PROBLEMS STEMMED FROM THE STATE CONTROLLED ECONOMY SERIOUS ENERGY SHORTAGE TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE POORLY DEVELOPED POPULAR RESISTANCE & CHANGES IN CENTRAL POLICY HAVE WEAKENED CHINA’S POPULATION CONTROL PROGRAM ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION REORGANIZATION UNDER COMMUNISM 1950s-1976 RECONSTRUCTION & REFORM BASED ON THE SOVIET MODEL LAND WAS EXPROPRIATED FARMING WAS COLLECTIVIZED INDUSTRIES REORGANIZED AS STATEOWNED COMMUNAL ENTERPRISES EMPHASIS ON “HEAVY INDUSTRY” DRAMATIC SOCIAL CHANGESEDUCATION, RELIGION, POPULATION GROWTH AGRICULTURAL REGIONS ENERGY RESOURCES DENG XIAOPING ERA TOOK POWER IN 1979 AS A “PRAGMATIC MODERATE” COMMUNIST POLITICAL RULE WITH CAPITALIST ECONOMIC PRACTICES OPENED CHINA TO FOREIGN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PERMITTED STUDENTS TO STUDY ABROAD DENG XIAOPING INTRODUCED ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION MEASURES DECENTRALIZED DECISION-MAKING SHIFTED TO THE RESPONSIBILITY SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE CREATED SEZs, OPEN CITIES, OPEN COASTAL AREAS ATTEMPTED TO CREATE A “SOCIALIST MARKET ECONOMY” ECONOMIC INITIATIVES SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES 5 SEZs ESTABLISHED; 3 IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE INVESTMENT INCENTIVES: LOW TAXES, IMPORT/EXPORT REGULATIONS EASED, LAND LEASES SIMPLIFIED, ETC OPEN CITIES INCLUDED 14 COASTAL CITIES SCALED BACK TO 4 CITIES NATIONAL INVESTMENT FOCUSED ON SHANGHAI OPEN COASTAL AREAS ALSO DESIGNED TO ATTRACT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS PACIFIC COAST DELTAS AND PENINSULAS THREE GORGES DAM Began in 1992 Target completion date 2009 Chang Jiang / Yangzi Rivers 600’ above valley floor Environmental damage-ineligible for World Bank or foreign bank funding 1.5 million people displaced SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES INVESTOR INCENTIVES LOW TAXES EASING OF IMPORT AND EXPORT REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED LAND LEASES HIRING OF CONTRACT LABOR PERMITTED PRODUCTS MAY BE SOLD IN FOREIGN MARKETS AND IN CHINA (UNDER CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS) LOCATION WAS PRIME CONSIDERATION NORTHEAST CHINA PLAIN Vast Agriculture Mineral wealth Rust belt-Old industrial center 1970’s Hardwood forests Region in decline Positives-proximity to Russian Far East & Korea XIZANG (Tibet) Chinese domination during the Manchu Dynasty1720’s Regained independent status in the 19th century Communist regime invaded in the 1950’s Chinese crushed an uprising from villagers in 1959 Buddhist society led by the Dalai Lama Chinese destroyed beautiful architecture & looted religious treasures After Mao’s death control was relaxed XIZANG (Tibet) Autonomous region designation Sparse population of 2 Million Capital-Lhasa & center of population Hydropower, light industry & mineral potential Oil, coal & pastoral nomads in Quaidam Basin XINJIANG Autonomous region designation 18 million people – 40% Chinese Kazakhs, Kyrgyz people & borders all 5 former central Asian Soviet republics Oasis Agriculture Extensive oil & gas and close to Caspian Sea pipelines Remote frontier allowed space, rocketry & nuclear experimentation Disputed territories with India & Tajikistan ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Overseas Chinese play crucial role in Pacific Rim development Investment was now open to Taiwanese and other foreigners China wants to participate in the global economy Special Economic Zones p465 have more latitude than the OPEN CITIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Foreigners were comfortable with the areas of former colonies of Hong Kong & Macau Chinese population moved to the SEZ Historic opposition to Deng Xiaoping’s economic policy OPEN CITIES SIZE OVERSEAS TRADING HISTORY LINKS TO “OVERSEAS CHINESE” LEVELS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION POOL OF LOCAL TALENT AND LABOR CONFINED TO COASTAL AREAS CHINA’S ECONOMIC ZONES ECONOMIC DEVLOPMENT HONG KONG MEANS “FRAGRANT HARBOR”- AN EXCELLENT DEEP WATER PORT BOOMED DURING THE KOREAN WAR 6 MILLION PEOPLE WITHIN 400 SQ MILES ECONOMY IS LARGER THAN HALF OF THE WORLD’S COUNTRIES 1 JULY 1997- BRITISH TRANSFERRED CONTROL TO CHINA HONG KONG RENAMED XIANGGANG ACQUIRED A NEW STATUS AS CHINA’S ONLY SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION (SAR) ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Hong Kong British lease for 98 years 1898-1997 China promised to keep the capitalist economy intact 1990’s-25% of China’s foreign trade passed through Hong Kong Hong Kong’s economy declined to the benefit of the adjacent SEZ in Shenzhen Regions competed on basis of lowest wages CHINA’S FUTURE-Economic Authoritarian Capitalism Possess a wide range of undiscovered natural resources Market-400,000 City Dwellers/Consumers Products produced with low cost labor MFN trading status with USA Major exporter of military armaments CHINA’S FUTUREPolitical/Military Assist Iran & North Korea’s nuclear development Spratley Island claim with Philippines Boundary disputes with Russia, India & Kazakhstan Claim over Taiwan Largest standing army of 3 million Nuclear power EAST ASIA (CHAPTER 9: 418-485) ...
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