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Unformatted text preview: THE AUSTRAL THE REALM REALM (CHAPTER 11: 530­549) MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC MAJOR QUALITIES QUALITIES TERRITORIAL DIMENSION & CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RELATIVE LOCATION AND ISOLATION PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT HIGHLY CLUSTERED URBAN POPULATIONS CHANGING HUMAN GEOGRAPHY VIA IMMIGRATION AND ACTIVISM EXPORTERS OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS AUSTRALIA’S PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS PHYSIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST CONTRAST N.Z.­Earthquakes, Mountains & volcanic eruptions Australia­Modest & few mountains while relatively flat N.Z.­Moderate moist climate Australia­Varies from tropical rainforest, desert to Mediterranean CLIMATE BIOGEOGRAPHY A SUB­FIELD OF GEOGRAPHY­ THE SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF FLORA AND FAUNA EVOLVED FROM THE OVERLAP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT (1769­1859) IS RECOGNIZED AS THE FOUNDER SUB­DIVIDED INTO 2 MAIN BRANCHES: • • ZOOGRAPHY OR STUDY OF FAUNA PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OR STUDY OF FLORA THE AUSTRALIAN REALM SERVES AS A “LABORATORY”­WHY? BIOGEOGRAPHY Marsupials­animals born very young in development then carried in a pouch • Isolation during breakup of Gondwana before other animals could enter Australia Vegetation is unique with species of eucalyptus trees Wallace Line­Alfred Russell Wallace defining the zoogeographic boundary of Australia’s fauna AUSTRALIA A FEDERAL STATE SINCE 1901 • COMPRISED OF 6 STATES AND 2 TERRITORIES PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS THE OUTBACK ­ EXTENSIVE GRASSLAND PASTURES WHICH SUPPORT ONE OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST SHEEP AND CATTLE INDUSTRIES MAJOR URBAN CENTERS • • • SYDNEY (3.7 MILLION) MELBOURNE (3.3 MILLION) CANBERRA (342,000)­ CAPITAL (A CLASSIC GROWTH POLE) AUSTRALIA 20 million people Former British colony now a commonwealth member Well educated 300,000 Aboriginal People Ranks in top 15 countries in GNP Population growth rate is near zero AUSTRALIA Captain Arthur Phillips sailed into Sydney Harbor 1788 establishing modern Australia 6 States & 2 Federal Territories • 1st FT setup to protect aboriginal interests • 2nd FT setup for new federal capital (Canberra) 85% live in cities & towns POLITICAL DIVISIONS URBAN CULTURE 85% live in cities & towns Sydney • Sprawling, busy port city with distant suburbs Melbourne • Interesting architecture & cultured city Brisbane • Gold Coast adjoining the Great Barrier Reef Perth • One of the world’s most isolated cities SYDNEY THE INTERIOR IMPACT OF FIRE IN NEW SOUTH WALES E.J. PALKA BEACH ALONG AUSTRALIA’S EAST COAST NORTH QUEENSLAND SUGARCANE FIELD E.J. PALKA TEA PLANTATION E.J. PALKA Aboriginal Issues 1980’s obstruction of mining on ancestral land Prior 1992 it was taken for granted they has no rights High Court ruled that they had customary title Federal government passed a law protecting pastoral rights This negatively impacted the mining industry Eventually aboriginal claims were made in major cities ABORIGINAL CLAIMS IMMIGRATION White only policy until 1996 Vietnamese boat people never reached these shores Skills, financial status, age & facility with the English language are the focus Limited at 80,000 per year Great fear of the Asianization of the country AUSTRALIA’S AUSTRALIA’S ECONOMY ECONOMY PRINCIPAL PATTERNS: • EXPORTS RAW MATERIALS • BASED HEAVILY ON THE PRIMARY SECTOR ACTIVITIES • DEPENDS ON WORLD MARKETS IMPORT­SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIES SMALL DOMESTIC MARKET TENUOUS TRADE LINKS WITH ASIAN TIGERS AUSTRALIA’S AUSTRALIA’S ECONOMY ECONOMY IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIES- Encouraged IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION production of products locally because due to great shipping costs imports were expensive imports Agriculture-wool, meat & wheat Minerals • Gold, coal, nickel, tungsten, bauxite, asbestos & copper • oil & natural gas Manufacturing-oriented to domestic markets • Cars, electronics etc • Not competitive on world markets Geographic Complementarity would seem to apply Geographic with Asia with • Australia exports food & minerals BUT • Stiff tariffs on imported goods & Asian tariffs complicate the issue AGRICULTURE & MINERAL RESOURCES THE AUSTRAL THE REALM REALM (CHAPTER 11: 530­546) THE AUSTRAL REALM (NEW ZEALAND) CHAPTER 11: 547-549 NEW ZEALAND TWO MAJOR ISLANDS (NORTH AND SOUTH) AND MANY SMALLER SOUTH) MOUNTAINOUS ENVIRONMENTS WELLINGTON THE CAPITAL POPULATION OF 3.9 MILLION, OF OF WHICH 80% ARE EUROPEAN WHICH MAORI HERITAGE (POLYNESIAN ROOTS), BUT A MINORITY TODAY OF LESS THAN 400,000 OF NEW ZEALAND’S RELATIVE LOCATION (ASTRIDE PLATE BOUNDARIES) THE IMPACT CLIMATE CONTROLS? ECONOMY Sixty million sheep & 8 million cattle Wool, meat & dairy products makeup 2/3rds of NZ’s exports 40% of imports come from USA & Australia Pacific Rim buys most of their exports LAND-USE PATTERNS COMMONALITIES (AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND) BRITISH HERITAGE PASTORAL ECONOMIES SMALL INTERNAL MARKETS CHALLENGES OF DISTANCE AND CHALLENGES REMOTE LOCATION REMOTE HIGH % URBANIZATION PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT CONCERNS WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CONCERNS INDIGENOUS EXCELLENT QUALITY OF LIFE FOR MOST AUCKLAND, NORTH ISLAND Highly Urbanized on Coastal Margins THE MAORI FACTOR • Treaty of Watangi, 1840 • Land and Fishing Rights • Lack of Integration THE AUSTRAL REALM THE CHAPTER 11: 530-549 CHAPTER ...
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