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Lecture15-Harbor-Hydraulics

Lecture15-Harbor-Hydraulics - TTETTE-6755 Port Planning and...

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TTE TTE-6755 Port Planning and Design 6755 Port Planning and Design Lecture #15 Harbor Hydraulics - Tides. - Waves - Currents. - Scour . Luis Prieto-Portar 2009
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Can you design something “cheap” to deal with this every day.
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Encompasses all movement of water within a particular port or harbor Currents within a port can both help and hurt its structural and environmental integrity (e.g., sedimentation, pollutants) Surface current velocities, San Pedro de Sula, Honduras. Wave action versus navigability issues (harbor entrance, breakwaters, jetties) °±²³´µ¶·¸´µ¹¶º»¼»½±º¾¿¾»·À¶Á¾
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Wave Action. - Waves created can be of short or long-period ; - Many probabilistic models have been developed for different wave frequencies and amplitudes; - Prior to design, storm surges and tidal effects must be considered; and - Waves can be diffracted, reflected, or transmitted.
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Diffracted waves generated inside a harbor from its entrance.
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The diffraction of waves: H d = diffracted wave height; H i = incident wave height; r = radial distance to diffracted wave; ° = angle between breakwater and the radial; q = incident wave direction; and L = wave-length.
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Example. Find the wave height in the lee of the breakwater, if ° = 30º; radial distance r = 100 m; period T = 6 seconds; the wave height H i = 2 m; ± = 60º; lee-water depth = 10 m; wave length L = 48 m. Solution: 100 1) = = 2.08 48 r m L m ( )( ) 2) From figure on the next slide, for = 30º and = 2.08 yields '= 0.28 3) The diffracted wave height ' 0.5 2 0.28 6 d i r K L H H K m m β = = =
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Wave diffraction diagram:
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The Transmission and Reflection of Waves. When a wave hits a breakwater it will be partially reflected, partially absorbed, and some wave energy will be transmitted. The most critical wave energy comes from the reflected waves within the harbor boundaries, because the create harbor wave oscillations. Structures within the harbor have different reflection coefficients which govern their designs. Harbor Oscillations. Vertical motions from waves within a harbor may be small, yet their horizontal motions can be very large. The port engineer must try to prevent the waves and currents from matching their natural resonant periods with that of the harbor. For this reason, sources of friction for the waves within a harbor is good factor for design.
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Wave reflections within the confines of a harbor.
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Waves Impacting Port Structures
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Harbor Currents. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship include its inertial mass, propeller, rudder, and crosscurrent forces (among many others). Currents can be freshwater (river), or tidal. Currents cause toe scour of quay walls and bulkheads, which lead to structural failure. Currents serve an important role in flushing waste from the harbor basin.
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The stability of port infrastructure under the action of waves and currents.
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