Exam 1 - Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction to...

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Exam 1 – Study Guide Introduction to Biological Anthropology What is Anthropology? (Prof. Pete says…) Anthropology: the study of every aspect of human existence in all times and places. What qualifies as “human” history? Early hominids to modern humans Characteristics of hominids Hominids: apes that walk on two feet. What is culture and what does it include? Culture: strategy of how humans adapt to the natural environment. o Includes technologies, subsistence patterns, housing types, clothing, religion, values, gender roles, and marriage and family. Cultural relativity Cultural relativity: each culture should be understood within its own context and not judged by other cultures’ norms. 4 subfields of anthropology 1. Archeology (studies and interprets material remains recovered from earlier cultures) 2. Social/ Cultural (studies all aspects of human behavior) 3. Linguistics 4. Physical or Biological Ethnography Ethnography: detailed descriptive studies of human societies (contemporaneous with the researcher). Historic vs. prehistoric archaeology Historic archeologist: examine the evidence of later, complex civilizations. Prehistoric archeologist: deals with cultures that existed before the invention of writing. Artifacts, material culture, ecofacts, landscapes Artifacts: objects or materials made or modified by hominids Material Culture: physical manifestations of human activities (i.e. tools, art, and structures) Ecofacts: remains of animals (faunal remains) and plants (botanical remains) used for food or other purposes Landscapes: Any human-caused (anthropogenic) change in the local environment. Relationship between culture and language Language reflects the way members of a society perceive phenomena and the use of language shapes perceptions in different cultures. 6 subfields of physical anthropology 1. Paleoanthropology: study of human evolution. 2. Primatology: study of nonhuman primates. 3. Osteology: study of skeletal material. 4. Paleopathology: studies evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains; branch of osteology. 5. Forensic anthropology: applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters. 6. Applied anthropology: using specialized knowledge to help solve current problems. Biocultural evolution
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Biocultural evolution: the mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution. The scientific method The scientific method: a research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is stated, and that hypothesis is tested through the collection and analysis of data. Hypothesis vs. theory Theory: A hypothesis that can’t be falsified; a hypothesis that’s been repeated tested and scientists haven’t been able to disprove it. History of Evolutionary Thought
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Exam 1 - Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction to...

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