Study Guide 2 - Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2 Preconscious...

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French Japanese Spanish Ego Conscious Unconscious Preconscious Superego Id Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2 Jennifer Soong Sensation: Stimulation of sense organs Perception: Organizing, categorizing, interpreting, focusing, subjective The brain as a data reduction system/file cabinet: Shema – concepts, mind organized this way, everything is filtered by what’s already in your brain Top-down Processing: Matching what you see with what you know Bottom-up Processing: Mind does not like this, no way to categorize or recognize the subject, have to figure out what it is, takes a lot of energy Gestalt Laws of Perception: Prefer to perceive the world in a simple or basic way, like things that are linear, symmetric, Retina: Light sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye Cones: Rods: Visual receptors for dim light that produce only black & white sensations, sensitive to movement in peripheral Lock & Key theory of smell & taste: Odors are related to the shapes of chemical molecules, fits into holes on the surface of olfactory receptors Depth Perception: based on experience, estimate roughly, Retinal disparity: as an object gets closer, the view from each eye gets further (to determine depth/distance) Binocular cues: two eyes Monocular cues: one eye Types of memory: Sensory: 500 msec/0.5 sec, stored as very basic visual or sound, no details Short-term (STM): Things initially have meaning, lasts about 30 sec, forget or will go to long term, short & has limited capacity Long-term (LTM): No capacity limit Flashbulb: Stay forever, trapped in time, personal/emotional/world news Declarative: Episodic – actual events, Semantic – facts Procedural: muscle memory (skills) Encoding: focusing, first stage of memory Selective attention: we encode based on relevance, interest, strong emotions, repetition, habits* Chunking & Rehearsal: helps in memorization
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Cue- depending theories of memory: context a emotion, study in the classroom that you learn in – subtle cues, tend to remember things relevant to your mood, habits Electrical stimulation: Forgotten memories: Poor encoding, decay – use it or lose it, interference – competition Retroactive Proactive interference How to improve your memory: Personal - Find method that you benefit from - Sleep & nutrition – maintain you cognitive power (debatable) - Distributed practice – opposite of cramming o Relieves stress, better for your health - Minimize interference – study same thing in one session - Mnemonics, rhymes, acronyms - Lecture notes – write in your own words - Active learning – take notes, summarize while reading, rewrite notes shortly after taking them = study less
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Study Guide 2 - Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2 Preconscious...

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