MCAT Study Guide - MCAT Study Guide from Barrons Biology...

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MCAT Study Guide from Barron’s Biology Chromatin Structure Histones are the most numerous category of proteins in chromatin o Aggregate with DNA to from nucleosomes o Each nucleosomes contains two molecules of each histone class comprising a protein core and has two turns of DNA wound around the outside Cytoskeleton Microfilaments – contain actin protein subunits assembled into very thin filaments; associated with motor proteins Microtubules – rigid tubs that can support cell shape or serve as a surface along which to move organelles inside the cell; forms mitotic spindle during mitosis Intermediate filaments Viral Life Cycles Lytic – virus rapidly replicates after entering a host cell, then triggers lysis of the host cell to release the assembled viruses Lysogenic – DNA copy of the viral nucleic acid becomes incorporated into the host cell chromosome where it is replicated along with the adjacent host DNA Bacteriophages – viruses that infect bacteria Retroviruses – single stranded RNA viruses that infect animal cells. By using reverse transcriptase to make DNA copies of the viral RNA, the DNA is then incorporated into host chromosomes; important inducers of a number of cancers in experimental animals DNA Replication DNA Helicase – separates two strands of the DNA that will be replicated.
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