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Unformatted text preview: BioNB 2210: Lecture 12 Sept. 21, 2011 Lecture 12: Orientation & Navigation I
Professor Charles Walcott
At the conclusion of this lecture, you should be able to:
A. Describe the basic problem of animal navigation and give some examples.
B. Distinguish between orientation and true navigation.
C. Describe how to distinguish which of several cues animals are using for orientation
and give an example.
D. Predict what direction a clock shifted animal will choose if it is using a sun compass.
E. Enumerate some of the reasons for animal migrations and the cues that control their
timing. 1. The phenomenon of migration; does it exist?
Swallows spend winter in the mud
Birds migrate to the moon
Hummingbirds and swans 2. Lots of animals migrate:
Insects: Monarch butterfly
Bar Tailed Godwit
Arctic Tern 3. Why Migrate? Food for young, Robins in Alaska vs. Michigan
4. Banding of birds provides direct evidence of migration
Red Knot from Cape Cod, Mass. to Argentina 5. Annual reproductive cycle of migratory bird
Synchronization to yearly cycle 6. Cues that start and control migration
Endogenous Circannual Rhythm BioNB 2210: Lecture 12 Sept. 21, 2011 Day length
Wind direction (barometric pressure?) 7. Radar as a tool to study bird migration
History, David Lack and angels
Tim and Janet Williams, the Bermuda detour Map of Americas
Bill Evans and sound monitoring
Bill Cochran and thrush following 8. Donald Griffinʼs Three Categories
True Navigation 9. Cues that birds use- how do you tell? Orientation cages!
Sun- Compensated Sun Compass, like bees and ants
Stars- Emlen's work
Earth's Magnetic Field-Wiltschkos
Polarized light patterns
Wind direction 10. Integration of cues
Stars and Sun vs. the Earth's Magnetic field
Use of wind direction in southeast US, not in Albany 11. Navigation vs. Orientation; Map Distinguished from compass
Birds return to a specific location: both summer and winter. 12. Thorupʼs Displacement Experiment with White Crowned Sparrows
Able, Kenneth "Mechanisms of Orientation, Navigation and Homing. in Animal Migration,
Orientation and Navigation ed. by Sidney A.Gauthreaux, Academic Press 1980. Probably the best
recent review of orientation mechanisms.
An excellent compendium of recent papers is in: J. exp. Bio. vol. 199, Jan 1996
Emlen, Stephen T. "Migration Orientation and Navigation." in Avian Biology, Vol. V, Academic
Press 1975. An excellent, older review.
Berthold, P. ed. "Orientation in Birds" Birkhauser 1991. A compendium of recent papers with good
literature references. ...
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- Fall '10