Deviant behavior paper - Punishment Research Paper Elaine...

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Punishment Research Paper Elaine Daley-Channer SOC/120 06/19/2011 Mary A. McGehee PhD Introduction Several research studies have addressed whether punishment deters crime. Since the crime recidivism rate exceeds 60% in the United States, findings show that punishment alone does not deter crime (U.S. Department of Justice, 2011). Yet, this research question inevitably truncates other factors. These include societal expectations and acceptations, the American society’s perception of justice and retribution, whether rehabilitation, and/or probation also play roles in recidivism rates (Shih, 2008; Wright, et.al, 2004; Manto & Kassebaum, n.d.). Therefore, one must explore all of these factors in order to determine whether punishment deters crime, whether punishment influences crime recidivism and whether American society and the correctional system merely engender such high recidivism rates. More importantly, perhaps, punishment alone, perhaps, verifies B.F. Skinner’s contention that such measures merely cultivate undesirable behaviors ( ). Several forces and contentions inform the American justice system and its punishments. Among them, the need for retribution ( Textbook Author, YEAR) or societal revenge in equal measure to the moral wrong justifies the punishment (p. 128). However, retribution also supports the idea of social protection. By engaging a punishment in equal measure to the immoral or criminal act committed, retribution also serves as societal protection. As Textbook author ( Year) states, the imprisonment or the execution of the offender insulates society. After all, prison or
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death most certainly demarcate and exclude offenders from society. For societies unwilling or unable to rehabilitate the offenders or change the social conditions that engendered the offenses themselves, incarceration or execution satisfy the American society’s need for justice/retribution and protect its members from further harm. Yet, given the Bureau of Justice 2002 and 2007 Statistics, punishment does not deter crime. Offenders who experience incarceration without preparation for reentry or reintegration programs for at least four months after release, are more predisposed for re-incarceration than those who receive such training and services (Manto and Kassebaum, n.d.; Shih, 2008). In fact, Shih’s 2008 study of juvenile offenders demonstrates how rehabilitation and support programs reduce recidivism rates by 35% (p. 3). Parole also reduces recidivism rates. In a study of parolees, the U.S. Department of Justice 2007 Statistics reveal an overall 15.5% rate of re- incarceration (2009, p. 7). That means that approximately one in five of the 1, 248, 337 parolees were re-incarcerated (p. 7). Based on region and jurisdiction in 2007, 8% were re-incarcerated at the Federal level whereas 16.4 % were re-incarcerated at the state levels (p. 7). This demonstrates a significant difference in rates between Federal and state jurisdictions. However,
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course SOC 120 AAAA0OHHG4 taught by Professor Lyndacable during the Spring '10 term at University of Phoenix.

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Deviant behavior paper - Punishment Research Paper Elaine...

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