1 atomic nuclear structure

1 atomic nuclear structure - Symbols for α p n β and...

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Atomic and Nuclear Structure Atomic Stucture Bohr model of the atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud atomic # = Z (# of protons) mass # = N+Z (N = # of neutrons) isotopes atomic weight Periodic Table Organization Metals vs. non-metals groups and periods Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, noble gases, halogens, transition metals Electron Configurations Standard and Abbreviated forms Exceptions (Cr and Cu) Ions (transition metals too) Paramagnetic vs. diamagnetic Quantum Numbers # Name What? Range n principal Shell [0… ] l azimuthal Subshell (type of orbital) [0…(n-1)] m l magnetic Specific orbital (orientation in space) [-l…+l] m s spin Up or down +1/2 or -1/2 Electron Energy Levels Ground state vs. excited state Emission vs. absorption spectra
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Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Structure and the strong nuclear force Nuclear symbols
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Unformatted text preview: Symbols for α , p, n, β , and γ (penetrating power) Unstable nuclei are radioactive 1) Odd numbers of protons and/or neutrons are unstable 2) N/Z ratio 3) Magic numbers (2, 8, 20, 50, 82, 126) Nuclear Rxns Parent → daughter(s) + energy mass is always lost (E=mc 2 ) Routes of Decay What? Who? 1) α-decay Reduces Mass Large nuclei (Z>83) 2) β-decay a) β-decay n → p N/Z is too high b) β + decay p → n N/Z is too low c) Electron Capture p → n N/Z is too low 3) γ-decay Rate of Decay Always 1 st order (N = N – kt) Half-life (fractions and percents) Nuclear Binding Energy (total vs. per nucleon) mass defect ( ∆ m) E = ∆ mc 2 ∆ m must be in kg 6.02 x 10 23 a.m.u. = 1g 56 Fe has the highest nuclear binding energy per nucleon...
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1 atomic nuclear structure - Symbols for α p n β and...

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