HIST046.docx - HIST046 1 u2013 LIFESTYLE Nomadic...

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HIST0461 – LIFESTYLE-Nomadic pastoralistsoDesert sheep, camel, donkey herdersoAnimal peopleoLimited food sources move to find resources (migration)-Bedouins oPopulations of the desertoLived in symbiosis and in conflict with settled, nomadic and urbans populationso‘sometimes peaceful sometimes not’ -Families, clans, tribal structureoPatriarchaloAttached to larger tribal entities (for defense)oAllegiance to group identity to fulfill needs-Hadith/ahadith – stories attributed to the prophet Muhammad -ClimateoHarsh conditionsoSmall groups can’t survive outside of clan– RIVERS AND REGIONS-Nile oEgyptoFlat land to allow settlement (fertile soil) lots of settlement oFlooding-Tigris-EuphratesoEastern Fertile Crescent (Iraq)oFlooding – unpredictable therefore irrigation canals producedEstablished organized central settlements and empire structuresSlaves, taxesoWestern fertile crescent (Syria)Rain and mountainous – not centralized structures-Anatolia (Turkey)-Iran (Deserts)-Arabian Peninsula – LINGUISTIC GROUPS-Semitic oHebrew, Arabic-Indo-EuropeanoPersians, Curds, Greeks, oBelong to same language family originating from Asia to India and Europe-Turkic2 – EARLY ISLAMIC HISTORY AND THE CALIPHATE-Islam in relation to Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity
HIST046oMonotheism (sim)One GodoProphetsConsiders earlier traditions as legitimate (accepts Jesus as legitimate prophet)oHoly scripturesQuran vs Testament vs ToraoAngles/devilsDecides eternal fate oMoral universeLive life in this world to determine eternal fate (no reincarnation)oDifferences –Agenda – advocacy and warning, function and responsibility of followersMohammed – messenger of God, last prophetSubmission by followers for eternal blissRespects other religious populations Believe in one God – judge of universeBelieve in Heaven, Hell, Earth Egocentric - Everything created for humanity -Prophets oMuhammed – prophet of IslamMoral, religious, political and military leader to the peopleDifferent from Jesus – established equality, state institutions, founded social justice, leaderships, statesmanshipFROM Hijaz regionMeccaDied 632Allah – the GodUmma – united believers he created – controlled middle east and north AfricaHadith – account of Mohammed’s sayingsFrom Quraysh tribe (Mecca) – controlling tribe in MeccaMuhammed from minor clan - Banu HashimeMany of tribe opposed Muhammed until converting to IslamKhadija – wife who helped understand the messages (first muslim whois female)Hanifs – indigenous Arabian monotheism610 – Mohammed’s first revelation – received message from God fromangel Gabriel (instructions)622 – hijra (emigration from Yathrib to Medina)Became year 0 in Islamic calendarEstablish own independent community ummaGolden Age - time period was utopia – as future occurs time degenerates (more and more time between past and now)oUtopia – direct guidance from God, clarity of mind
HIST046Medina muslims turned against Mecca muslims

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