2-423-08BiomoleculesStudent

2-423-08BiomoleculesStudent - Biomolecules OBJECTIVES Be...

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Biomolecules OBJECTIVES Be able to: -Know (be able to draw and/or recognize their structures) the 20 amino acids found in proteins that are coded for by the genetic code: know the 3-letter abbreviation for each. -Classify the amino acids as nonpolar, polar and uncharged, polar and positively or negatively charged. Understand how these will interact in aqueous solution -Understand how amino acids can act as acids and bases; be able to draw and/or decipher titration curves of amino acids. Given any pH you should be able to assign a charge to any of the 20 amino acids. Pay close attention to His, Tyr, Cys side chains. -Understand disulfide bond formation -Define and be able to calculate pI Be able to describe -the behavior in water of all the different categories of biomolecules -at least four different functional roles of carbohydrates -at least three different functional roles of nucleotides -the biological functions of the major lipid classes Be able to recognize -the chemical structures of amino acids and proteins vs carbohydrates vs nucleotides/nucleic acids vs lipids OUTLINE Overview of biomolecules A. Proteins: -polymers made up of the monomers amino acids B. Carbohydrates: -monomers are monosaccharides, C. Lipids: -made up of fatty acids, other parts D. Nucleic acids: -polymers of nucleotides Unique structure of each biomolecule determines its function; noncovalent interactions play a critical role in structure and thus function. Relationship between structure and function especially evident in proteins; we will talk in great detail about proteins. . Amino Acids I. General structure of amino acids
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A. All 20 standard aas are alpha-amino acids. -alpha-carbon is bonded to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and an R group, also known as the side chain. B. Stereochemistry - only L isomers are protein constituents. II Classification of amino acids based on their R-groups A. Nonpolar Glycine Alanine Proline Valine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Phenylalanine Tryptophan B. Polar, but uncharged Serine Threonine Tyrosine Cysteine (disulfide bond) Asparagine Glutamine C. Polar, and positively or negatively charged Lysine Arginine, Histidine Glutamic acid Aspartatic acid III Acid/ base behavior, pI A. AAs are Zwitterions, amphoteric B. pKa values C. pI D. Titration curves Carbohydrates I. Structure Monosaccharides: aldose, ketose
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II. Functions A. energy storage B. metabolic intermediates C. structural support D. precursors of nucleic acids and nucleotide derived coenzymes
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2-423-08BiomoleculesStudent - Biomolecules OBJECTIVES Be...

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