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Chapter 11 outline

Chapter 11 outline - M GM 403 Chapter 11 USING MEASUREMENT...

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MGM 403 Chapter 11 USING MEASUREMENT SCALES TO BUILD MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS I) Attitudes, Behavior, & Marketing Effectiveness An attitude is a psychological construct, a way of conceptualizing an intangible. Attitude - enduing organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, & cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of a person’s environment. In marketing research, it is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner toward an object or concept. A) Link Between Attitudes & Behavior 1. Predictions of future behavior for a group of consumers tend to be more accurate than those for a single consumer: a) The more favorable the attitude of consumers, the higher the incidence of product usage; the less favorable the attitude, the lower the incidence of product usage. b) The less favorable people’s attitudes toward a product, the more likely they are to stop using it. c) The attitudes of people who have never tried a product tend to be distributed around the mean in the shape of a normal distribution. d) When attitudes are based on actually trying & experiencing a product, attitudes predict behavior quite well. Conversely, when attitudes are based on advertising, attitude-behavior consistency is significantly reduced. 2. 6 factors should be considered in assessing whether attitude research findings will predict behavior: a) Involvement of the consumer. b) Attitude measurement. c) Effects of other people. d) Situational factors.
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e) Effects of other brands. f) Attitude strength. B) Enhancing Marketing Effectiveness 1. Attitudes are truly the essence of the “human change agent” that all marketers strive to influence. II) Scaling Defined A) Scaling – procedures for assigning numbers (or other symbols) to properties of an object in order to impart some numerical characteristics to the properties in question. B) Undimensional scales – scales designed to measure only one attribute of a concept, respondent, or object. C) Multidimensional scales – scales designed to measure several dimensions of a concept, respondent, or object. III) Attitude Measurement Scales A) Graphic Rating Scales 1. Graphic rating scales offer respondents a graphic continuum, typically anchored by 2 extremes. 2. They enable a researcher to discern fine distinctions, assuming that the rater has adequate discriminatory abilities. 3. Numerical data obtained from the scales are typically treated as interval data. B) Itemized Rating Scales 1. Itemized rating scales are similar to graphic rating scales, except the respondents must select from a limited number of ordered categories rather than placing a mark on a continuous scale. 2. The definitive categories found in itemized rating scales usually produce more reliable ratings.
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