Chapter 9 outline

# Chapter 9 outline - MGM 403 Chapter 9 PRIMARY DATA...

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MGM 403 Chapter 9 I) What Is an Experiment? A) Experiment – research approach in which one variable is manipulated & the effect on another variable is observed. II) Demonstrating Causation - Causal research – research designed to determine whether a change in one variable likely caused an observed change in another A) Concomitant Variation 1. Concomitant variation – statistical relationship between two variables. 2. 3. 4. Concomitant variation by itself does not prove causation. Simply because two variables happen to vary together in some predictable fashion does not prove that one causes the other. B) Appropriate Time Order of Occurrence 1. The 2 nd requirement for demonstrating that a causal relationship likely exists between 2 variables is showing that there is an appropriate time order of occurrence – change in an independent variable occurred before an observed change in the dependent variable. C) Elimination of Other possible Causal Factors 1. Elimination of other possible causal factors – hard to prove that something else did not cause change in B. III) Experimental Setting A) Laboratory Experiments 1. Laboratory experiments provide a number of important advantages. 2. The major advantage of conducting experiments in a laboratory is the ability to control extraneous causal factors – temperature, light, humidity, and so on – and focus on the effect of a change in A on B. B) Field Experiments 1. Field experiments are conducted outside the laboratory in an actual market environment. 2. Field experiments solve the problem of realism of the environment but open up a new whole new set of problems.

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IV) Experimental Validity A) Validity is defined as the degree to which an experiment actually measures what the researcher was trying to measure. B) The validity of a measure depends on the extent to which the measure is free from both C) Internal validity refers to the extent to which competing explanations for the experimental results observed can be ruled out. D) External validity refers to the extent to which the causal relationships measured in an experiment can be generalized to outside person, settings, and times. V) Experimental Notation A) X is used to indicate the exposure of an individual or a group to an experimental treatment. The experimental treatment is the factor whose effects we want to measure & compare. B) O (for observation) is used to refer to the process of taking measurements on the test units. Test units are individuals, groups of individuals, or entities whose repose to the experimental treatments is being tested.
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Chapter 9 outline - MGM 403 Chapter 9 PRIMARY DATA...

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