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Unformatted text preview: MGM 403 Chapter 10 THE CONCEPT OF MEASUREMENT I) Measurement Process A) Measurement is the process of assigning numbers or labels to persons, objects, or events in accordance with specific rules for representing quantities or qualities of attributes. B) Rule is a guide, a method, or a command that tells a researcher what to do. II) Step One: Identify the Concept of Interest A) A concept is an abstract idea generalized from particular facts. B) It is a category of thought used to group sense data together as if they were all the same. III) Step Two: Develop a Construct A) Constructs are specific types of concepts that exist at higher levels of abstraction than do everyday concepts. B) The value of specific constructs depends on how useful they are in explaining, predicting, and controlling phenomena, just as value of everyday concepts depends on how helpful they are in everyday affairs. IV) Step Three: Define the Concept Constitutively A) A constitutive (or theoretical , or conceptual ) definition is a statement of the meaning of the central idea or concept under study, establishing its boundaries. V) Step Four: Define the Concept Operationally A) An operational definition specifies which observable characteristics will be measured and the process for assigning a value to the concept. B) On the basis of this definition, instruments have been developed for measuring attitudes indirectly, by asking questions about how a person feels, what the person believes, and how the person intends to behave. VI) Step Five: Develop a Measurement Scale A scale is a set of symbols or numbers so constructed that the symbols or numbers can be assigned by a rule to the individuals (or their behaviors or attitudes) to whom the scale is applied. A) Nominal Level of Measurement 1. Nominal scales are among those most commonly used in marketing research. 2. A nominal scale partitions data into categories that are mutually exclusive & collectively exhaustive, implying that every bit of data will fit into one or only one category & that all data will fit somewhere on the scale. 3. The term nominal means name-like, indicating that the numbers assigned to objects or phenomena are naming or classifying them but have no true number value; that is, the numbers cannot be ordered, added, or divided....
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- Spring '11