Electricity and Power Supplies‐Chapter #4Amy Hissom Key Terms Active backplane— A type of backplane system in which there is some circuitry, including bus connectors, buffers, and driver circuits, on the backplane. Alternating current (AC)— Current that cycles back and forth rather than traveling in only one direction. In the United States, the AC voltage from a standard wall outlet is normally between 110 and 115 V. In Europe, the standard AC voltage from a wall outlet is 220 V. Ampere or amp (A)— A unit of measurement for electrical current. One volt across a resistance of one ohm will produce a flow of one amp. AT — A form factor, generally no longer produced, in which the motherboard requires a full-size case. Because of their dimensions and configuration, AT systems are difficult to install, service, and upgrade. Also called full AT. ATX— The most common form factor for PC systems presently in use, originally introduced by Intel in 1995. ATX motherboards and cases make better use of space and resources than did the AT form factor. Baby AT— An improved and more flexible version of the AT form factor. Baby AT was the industry standard from approximately 1993 to 1997 and can fit into some ATX cases. Backplane system— A form factor in which there is no true motherboard. Instead, motherboard components are included on an adapter card plugged into a slot on a board called the backplane. Brownouts— Temporary reductions in voltage, which can sometimes cause data loss. BTX (Balanced Technology Extended)– The latest form factor expected to replace ATX. It has higher quality fans, is designed for better air flow, and has improved structural support for the motherboard. Bus riser— See riser card. Capacitor— An electronic device that can maintain an electrical charge for a period of time and is used to smooth out the flow of electrical current. Capacitors are often found in computer power supplies. Clamping voltage— The maximum voltage allowed through a surge suppressor, such as 175 or 330 volts. Compact case— A type of case used in low-end desktop systems. Compact cases, also called low profile or slimline cases, follow either the NLX, LPX, or Mini LPX form factor. They are likely to have fewer drive bays, but they generally still provide for some expansion. Data line protector— A surge protector designed to work with the telephone line to a modem. Diode— An electronic device that allows electricity to flow in only one direction. Used in a rectifier
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