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5 Nov 09_thurs._Chemistry

5 Nov 09_thurs._Chemistry - Chemistry 5November2009(Thurs...

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Chemistry 5 November 2009 (Thurs.) Ch. 7.7 Orbital Shapes and Energies Size of Orbitals Probability distribution A surface that contain 90% of the total electron probability. Different types of Atomic Orbitals (subshells/AOs) o S Orbitals: # = 1; spherical shape; n-1 nodes o P Orbitals: # -3; 2 lobes; n>2; px, py,pz o D Orbitals: # -5; 4 AOs in 4 lobes & 1 AO in 2 lobes + 1 ring N > 3; dxz, dyz, dxy, dx^2, -y^2, dz^2 o F orbitals: # -7 ; 4 AOs in 4 lobes & 3 AOs in 2 lobes + 2 rings; N > 4; usually not involved in bonding Orbital Energies All orbitals with the same value of n have the same energy  degenerate Ground state (lowest energy) & excited state (higher energy) Figure 7:13 p. 295 Two representations of the Hydrogen 1s, 2s, and 3s Orbitals.  a. the electron probability distribution b. The surface contains 90% of the total electron probability (the size  of the orbital, by definition).
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7.8 Electron Spin & the Pauli Principle
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