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1024LectureFile12 - Fossil Fuels So-called fossilized...

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1 Atmosphere Sunlight Hydrosphere Biosphere Photosynthesis Lithosphere Burning Decay CO 2 H 2 O Deposition Transformation H 2 O H 2 O CO 2 CO 2 Buried Organic Material Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels •So-called “fossilized sunlight”.
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Fossil Fuel Sources 2 •Coal. –Terrestrial organic matter. •Petroleum. –Marine organic matter. •Natural gas. Any organic matter. •Other (unconventional petroleum). –Oil shales, tar sands, heavy oils.
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Fossil Fuel History 3 •The Industrial Revolution changed everything. –energy demands larger. –fossil fuels are more efficient. •Coal burning banned in England in 1306. –smoke was deemed “noxious”. •Petroleum, natural gas used by Chinese. –Coal mined by Romans in England.
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Fossil Fuel Efficiency (1) 4 •Energy derives from breaking C–H bonds. –More C–H bonds per gram, more efficient. •Burying organic matter acts to refine it. –Converts complex compounds to simple ones. –Wood < coal < oil < natural gas.
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5 •A lead-acid battery (car battery): –Stores enough energy to lift its mass 10 feet into the air. •A gallon of gasoline: –Stores enough energy to lift its mass 1000 miles into the air. Fossil Fuel Efficiency (2)
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Coal: The Rock That Burns 6 •Continuum between 100% inorganic material and 100% organic. –Coal has enough organic matter to burn. –Non-combustible residues are ash (fine) or clinker (coarse) . –High clinker coals are called bony . •Nearly all sedimentary rocks contain some organic matter.
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7 Coal Ranks S t a g e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s H 2 O H e a t p e r p o u n d P e a t S o f t b r o w n D u l l b r o w n B r i g h t b r o w n L i g n i t e B i t u m e n o u s A n t h r a c i t e 3 5 % 2 5 % 5 4 0 0 B t u 7 2 0 0 B t u 9 9 0 0 B t u 1 5 , 5 0 0 B t u O r i g i n a l p l a n t m a t e r i a l v i s i b l e F r e e c e l l u l o s e N o f r e e c e l l u l o s e P l a n t s t r u c t u r e s p a r t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e N o r e c o g n i z a b l e p l a n t s t r u c t u r e s 7 5 % 1 0 % Coal is Rated by Rank • Energy output when burned.
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8 PSGJ, 4th, Figure 22.9, Page 515.
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9 Forming Coal •Requires swampy areas adjacent to coastlines. –Sea level rises, burying swamp. •During periods of low sea level, swamps flourish. –Sea level drops, swamps reestablished. •Process repeats, creating a cyclothem .
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10 PSGJ, 4th, Figure 22.8, Page 514. Kel, 8th, Figure 15.2, Page 403.
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11 http://www.huddersfieldgeology.supanet.com/ pages/p20envi.htm http://www.naturalsciences.org/education/Belize/ 2006/pages/Florida%20Everglades.html
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12 Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Mississippian Pennsylvanian Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary (Early) Tertiary (Late) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Geologic Period Accumulation (billion tons/million years) When did Coal Form?
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13 Mo, 7th, Figure 13.16, Page 321.
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Coal Usage 14 •Originally, distributed usage.
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