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Geography Exam 3 - GeographyExam3 16:24 Geomorphology...

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Geography Exam 3 16:24 Geomorphology A major branch of physical geography along with biogeography and  climatology Science of Landforms o Origin o Evolution o Form o Spatial Distribution 2 main processes o Endogenic- inside earth Plate tectonics o Exogenic- above land surface Atmospheric Insolation Rocks made by endogenic processes and exposed, the exogenic processes  wear them down and transport them Rock Types o Igneous o Sedimentary o Metamorphic Plate Tectonics o Endogenic
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o Creates surface features like continents, mountains, oceans, volcanoes Theory of Continental Drift and pangea o Alfred Wegener, 1912- continents floating on plastic material Noticed “fit” of the coastlines of the continents Found fossils indicating very different climates than today Matched large-scale features; e.g. Appalachian rocks match rocks in  Scottish highlands Harshly rejected by scientific world- no mechanism, what would drive  the movement? Turned out to be mostly right, but it was not recognized for another 50  yrs when the internal structure of the earth was discovered in the 1960 Rigid lithosphere Plastic athenosphere o 1960, Harry Hess came up with mechanism for continental drift seafloor spreading mirror images of rock ages on each side of spreading ridge and  magnetic reversals in polarity o Energy Source of Plate Tectonics Earths internal heat from the decay of radioactive material Convetion in the mantle (pushing and pulling) Presently o 14 plates sill moving around o 4 major plates NA Asia
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Africa South America Boundries 3 types o divergent o convergent o transform Divergent o New crust is formed as plates move apart and magma rises to surface o Most are in the middle of the ocean o A few on continents East African Rift Valley Iceland Divergent plate boundary Zones of extension Convergent o Zones of compression plates collide and rocks are recycled o Subduction Old crust sinking back under the surface to be remelted Ocean plaes is thinner but denser and heavier than continental crust. It  always sinks below the thicker but lighter, coninental crust Off the coast
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Continental margins Convergent plates and subduction zones are strongly associated with  earthquakes and volcanism
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