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Ch02+6e - Chapter 2 Chapter Quality Management What Is...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Chapter Quality Management What Is Quality? “The degree of excellence of a The thing” (Webster’s Dictionary) thing” “The totality of features and The characteristics that satisfy needs” (ASQ) (ASQ) Fitness for use Quality of design pho_02_01 pho_02_01 Garvin’s Eight Dimensions of Quality Dimensions • • • • Performance Features Reliability Conformance • • • • Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceptions Service Quality • • • • • • • Time & Timeliness Completeness Courtesy Courtesy Consistency Accessibility & Convenience Accessibility Accuracy Accuracy Responsiveness Responsiveness The Meaning of Quality The Meaning of Quality Producer’s Perspective Consumer’s Perspective Quality of Conformance Production Quality of Design • Conformance to specifications • Cost • Quality characteristics • Price Fitness for Consumer Use Marketing Quality Philosophers Quality Walter Shewhart - SPC W. Edwards Deming Joseph Juran Philip Crosby Armand Feigenbaum Karou Ishikawa Genichi Taguchi Dodge & Romig – acceptance sampling The Deming Wheel The (or PDCA Cycle) 4. Act Institutionalize improvement; continue the cycle. 1. Plan Identify the problem and develop the plan for improvement. 3. Study/Check 2. Do Assess the plan; is it working? Implement the plan on a test basis. The Evolution of Quality The • • • • • • • • • Caveat Emptor (“Let the buyer beware”) Customer complaints/product warranties 100% inspection Acceptance sampling (FG, RM, intermediate) Process Control (SPC) Quality of Design (Taguchi) Total Quality Management (TQM) Kaizen (continuous improvement) Six Sigma (breakthrough improvement) TQM Emphasis TQM Customer Focus Continuous Improvement Employee Involvement Cost of Good Quality Cost Prevention Appraisal Cost of Poor Quality Internal failure costs External failure costs Measuring and Reporting Quality Quality Quality to Labor index Quality to Cost index Quality to Sales index Quality to Production index Quality and Productivity output Productivity = input Fewer defects increase output Quality improvement reduces inputs Measuring Yield and Productivity Productivity Yield = (total input) (% good units) + (total (total input)(1 - % good units)(% reworked) (total Y = (I)(%G) + (I)(1 - %G)(%R) where where Y I %G %R = yield = number units started in production = percentage good units = percentage of defective units reworked Product Yield Product Start 100 motors per day 80% are good 50% of poor quality units can be reworked Yield = (I)(%G) + (I)(1 - %G)(%R) Multistage Process Yield Multistage Start with Start 100 motors 100 STAGE STAGE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE GOOD QUALITY GOOD 1 2 3 4 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.92 Y = (I) (%g1)(%g2)...(%gn) Employees and Quality Improvement Employee suggestions Quality circles Problem solving teams Process improvement Process teams teams Kaizens Seven Quality Control Tools 1. Cause-and-Effect Diagram 1. 2. Pareto Analysis 3. Check Sheet 4. Flow Chart 5. Histogram 6. Scatter Diagram 7. SPC Chart 1 2 3 4 Dirt Old Temp Fault x xx x x xx x x x xx x xx x UCL LCL Process 1 2 3 4 5 Quality Awards and Certifications The Baldrige Award The Deming Prize European Quality Award Government Awards – e.g., NASA State and Regional Awards Industry Awards ISO 9000 Six Sigma Six • Initiated by Motorola, refined by AlliedSignal, popularized by GE • A philosophy ….. • A statistic …… • A process ……. The Philosophy The • • • • • Customer focused Vital few (CTQ) Top management led Disciplined approach to quality ROI; Competitive advantage The Statistic The • 3.4 defective parts per million • 6-sigma refers to the process capability Sigma Level 2 3 4 5 6 Defects per million opportunities 308,537 66,807 6,210 233 3.4 3-Sigma Quality 3-Sigma • Lost mail 20,000 pieces lost per hour • Unsafe drinking water 15 minutes a day • Failed surgical operations 5,000 per week 6-Sigma Quality 6-Sigma • Lost mail 7 pieces of mail lost per hour • Unsafe drinking water 1 minute every 7 months • Failed surgical operations 1.7 per week How do you define a defect? How Two typists type letters to our customers Defect = Typo Michael 3 defects/page Deron 1 defect/page Which one is better quality? Six Sigma Pyramid Six Execs Champions Master Black Belts Black Belts Green Belts DEFINE – MEASURE – ANALYZE – IMPROVE - CONTROL fig_02_09 fig_02_09 The Process - DMAIC Six Sigma Tools Six ...
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