Study Guide (Final)

Study Guide (Final) - Study Guide: Final Exam Jennifer...

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Study Guide: Final Exam Jennifer Soong 12, 13, 14, 18 Articles, Films, and Class Notes Political Organizations Types of Political Organization - Bands: earliest human political structure o Unable to compete for resources as more political organizations were developed o o Foraging economies, low population densities, dozen – 100s o Informal leadership (oldest/older male as leader) o Decision making through consensus o Egalitarian o Big men leadership, influence rather than authority o Composite bands formed due to economic pressures, needed cooperation - Tribes: formally organized institutions that unite scattered residential communities o Greater cohesiveness o More united response to external threats o Sodalities: institutions that cut across communities, unite geographically scattered groups, kin or non-kin based o Chief: 10 years, generous, kindly, even tempered, aloof; take care of poor, settle disputes, responsible for ritual performances o Mostly egalitarian, some ranking - Chiefdoms: o o Not egalitarian, stratified/ranked society (kinship based) o Access to resources based on inherited status o Associated with horticultural societies (craft/regional specialization) o Resources are individually owned - States: tens of thousands – several million o Centralized leadership
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o Formal full authority o Supported by a bureaucracy o (1) elite (2) bureaucracy (3) populace o Stratified societies Social Control: diverse ways in which the behaviors of the members of society are constrained into socially approved channels; maintain conformity - Positive Sanctions: - Negative Sanctions: spanking, scolding; trains individuals in proper behavior - Formal means of social control: law, directly applied sanctions - Informal means of social control: gossip, fear of gossip, contempt or ridicule by peers, economic penalties - Socialization: process of inheriting norms, customs, ideologies; means by which social & cultural continuity are attained - Public Opinions: aggregate of individual attitudes/beliefs held by the adult population - Supernatural beings: o Spirits: animism o Gods: monotheistic, polytheistic o Ghosts, ancestor spirits o Belief in impersonal supernatural force – animatism; mana o Character of supernatural beings – helpful/punishing, unpredictable/predictable, aloof/interested - Witchcraft: accomplishes the same ills by means of thought & emotion alone - Song Duels: Eskimo – sing insults, peaceful way of resolving dispute; everything except murder
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Study Guide (Final) - Study Guide: Final Exam Jennifer...

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