L01-classification - SOIL MECHANICS CIVL 2410 1 1....

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SOIL MECHANICS CIVL 2410 1. Classification Introduction to Soil Mechanics, Soils and their Classification Contents 1. Introduction to Soil Mechanics. .................................................................................. 1 2. SOILS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION ...................................................................... 2 a) Introduction to Classification. .................................................................................. 2 b) Particle Size Definitions. ......................................................................................... 3 c) Broad Classification. ............................................................................................... 4 i) Coarse-grained soils. ........................................................................................... 4 ii) Fine-grained soils. ............................................................................................... 4 d) Procedure for grain size determination. .................................................................. 4 e) Grading curves. ...................................................................................................... 5 f) Atterberg Limits. ....................................................................................................... 7 g) Classification Systems for Soils. ............................................................................. 9 i) PRA (AASHO) system. ......................................................................................... 9 ii) Unified Soil Classification. ................................................................................. 10 1. Introduction to Soil Mechanics. Geotechnical Engineering is that part of engineering which is concerned with the behaviour of soil and rock. Soil Mechanics is the part concerned solely with soils. From an engineering perspective soils generally refer to sedimentary materials that have not been cemented and have not been subjected to high compressive stresses. As the name Soil Mechanics implies the subject is concerned with the deformation and strength of bodies of soil. It deals with the mechanical properties of the soil materials and with the application of the knowledge of these properties to engineering problems. In particular it is concerned with the interaction of structures with their foundation material. This includes both conventional structures and also structures such as earth dams, embankments and roads which are themselves made of soil. As for other branches of engineering the major issues are stability and serviceability. When a structure is built it will apply a load to the underlying soil; if the load is too great the strength of the soil will be exceeded and failure may ensue. It is important to realise that not only buildings are of concern, the failure of an earth dam can have catastrophic consequences, as can failures of natural and man made slopes and excavations. Buildings or earth structures may be rendered unserviceable by
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L01-classification - SOIL MECHANICS CIVL 2410 1 1....

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