L07-anisotropic_flow_nets

L07-anisotropic_flow_nets - 1 Soil Mechanics CIVL2410 7....

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1 Soil Mechanics CIVL2410 7. FLOW NETS FOR ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS Contents 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Permeability of Layered Deposits .................................................................................................... 1 3. Flow nets for soil with anisotropic permeability ................................................................................ 4 a) Example - Seepage in an anisotropic soil. ................................................................................... 5 4. Piping ............................................................................................................................................... 8 1. Introduction Many soils are formed in horizontal layers as a result of sedimentation through water. Because of seasonal variations such deposits tend to be horizontally layered and this results in different permeabilities in the horizontal and vertical directions. 2. Permeability of Layered Deposits Consider the horizontally layered deposit, shown in Figure 1, which consists of pairs of layers the first of which has a permeability of k 1 and a thickness of d 1 overlaying a second which has permeability k 2 and thickness d 2 . Figure 1: Layered Soil. First consider horizontal flow in the system and suppose that a head difference of h exists between the left and right hand sides as indicated in Figure 2. It then follows from Darcy’s law that:
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2 Soil Mechanics CIVL2410 ) 1 ( ; ) 1 ( ; 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 b d L h k Q L h k v and a d L h k Q L h k v = = = = Figure 2: Horizontal flow through layered soil. It therefore follows:
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L07-anisotropic_flow_nets - 1 Soil Mechanics CIVL2410 7....

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