sma16 - Earth Pressures on Retaining walls Rankines Method...

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Unformatted text preview: Earth Pressures on Retaining walls Rankines Method Modes of failure F Modes of failure The force F may be provided by friction at the base (gravity retaining walls) F Modes of failure The force F may be provided by friction at the base (gravity retaining walls) founding the wall into the ground (sheet retaining walls) F Modes of failure The force F may be provided by friction at the base (gravity retaining walls) founding the wall into the ground (sheet retaining walls) anchors and struts F Modes of failure The force F may be provided by friction at the base (gravity retaining walls) founding the wall into the ground (sheet retaining walls) anchors and struts external loads F Modes of failure 1. ACTIVE Failure If the force F is too small failure of the wall will occur with soil pushing the wall out. F direction of soil movement Modes of failure 1. ACTIVE Failure If the force F is too small failure of the wall will occur with soil pushing the wall out. F direction of soil movement For most retaining walls active failure is the primary concern. Modes of failure 1. PASSIVE Failure If the force F is too large failure of the wall will occur with the wall pushing into the soil. F direction of soil movement Modes of failure 1. PASSIVE Failure If the force F is too large failure of the wall will occur with the wall pushing into the soil. F direction of soil movement This mode of failure is usually only relevant when large external forces are being applied. Modes of failure 1. PASSIVE Failure If the force F is too large failure of the wall will occur with the wall pushing into the soil. F direction of soil movement This mode of failure is usually only relevant when large external forces are being applied. However, local passive conditions may occur if any part of the wall moves towards the soil. Assume that the wall is frictionless The normal stress acting on the wall will thus be a principal stress If the wall is vertical and the soil surface horizontal the vertical and horizontal stresses throughout the retained soil mass will be the principal stresses The vertical stress may then be calculated in the usual way Rankines theory Assume that the wall is frictionless The normal stress acting on the wall will thus be a principal stress If the wall is vertical and the soil surface horizontal the vertical and horizontal stresses throughout the retained soil mass will be the principal stresses The vertical stress may then be calculated in the usual way Rankines theory d 1 d 2 z The vertical total stress at depth z is given by Assume that the horizontal stress can be calculated from the failure criterion. That is the retained soil is assumed to be everywhere at failure....
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sma16 - Earth Pressures on Retaining walls Rankines Method...

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