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Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Page 1 of 7 I Key terms for multiple...

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Page 1 of 7 I. Key terms for multiple choices What is anthropology - the study of humankind, or the science of culture or man Four-field anthropology- archeology (bones and fossils), biological (biology), linguistic (language), social (society and social environment) The Crystal Palace- organized the art of culture that formed the beginning of anthropology, first time all the cultures met at the world fair in 1851. The age of equipoise - declaring the white Victorian people dominant race. Sociocultural evolution- describing how cultures and societies have developed over time. Linear progression, starting with the primitive stage, going up to the modern man. The comparative method of anthropology- As a discipline, anthropology begins with a simple yet powerful idea: any detail of our behavior can be understood better when it is seen against the backdrop of the full range of human behavior. This, the comparative method, attempts to explain similarities and differences among people holistically, in the context of humanity as a whole. The historical method of anthropology- the method of studying customs in their relation to the total culture of the people practicing them. We need to understand each culture with its own history before trying to come up with a grand theory of human history. Fieldwork- living in another culture and trying to understand them. 3 types: interviews, surveys, and participant observations Ethnography- the actual information you write down, the qualitative account Colonialism and anthropology- this was important because this was when civilized people were meeting uncivilized people. Sent anthropologist out to the colonies because they could understand them better and shit. Coevalness- sharing the same time, not primitive, which refutes the sociocultural evolution. Cultural relativism- why people do fieldwork, people must be understood in their own context of their own culture. Interpretive anthropology- anthropology through symbols. What is “culture”?- a system of symbolic meaning, both symbolic and material, learned not inherited, shared not idiosyncratic, particular not universal.
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Race- a classification of human groups based on criteria that try to correlate physical forms with mental traits, temperaments, and behaviors Scientific racism- use of scientific methods to support or validate racists attitudes in world views. Although no longer used by contemporary anthropologists, this theory assumes that humanity is made up of discreet, sub-races, such as Caucazoid, Negroid, and Mongoloid. Nature vs. culture- Nature is natural and biological derived, and culture is inherited and learned Race as a “social construct”- it is socially constructed cuz it has no genetic makeup for race, and people believe it is true. Naturalization-
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Final Study Guide - Page 1 of 7 I Key terms for multiple...

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