SOCI 2 - SOC 2 Final Study Guide Key terms/concepts Chapter...

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SOC 2 Final Study Guide Key terms/concepts: Chapter 6: Conformity, Deviance, and Crime Functionalist theory of deviance o Definition: this theory sees crime and deviance resulting from structural tensions and a lack of moral regulation within society. o Merton, a functionalist theorist who came up with the strain theory (people depart from normal rules and become social deviants), identifies 5 possible reactions to the tensions between socially endorsed values and the limited means of achieving them, including conformists (those who accept values and conventional means whether or not they meet with success), innovators (those who advocate change; they accept socially approved values but they use illegal means to follow them), ritualists (those who conform to socially accepted standards even though they’ve lost sight of the values behind these standards), retreatists (abandoned competitive outlook and rejects both dominant values and the approved means of achieving them), and rebels (reject both existing values and means but wish actively to substitute new ones and reconstruct social system). o Durkheim, another functionalist theorist, came up with two important functions of deviance, including an adaptive function (introduces new ideas and challenges into society), and promotes boundary maintenance between what’s good and bad behaviors in society. Reinforcement theory of deviance o Definition: learned deviance; the control theory and the differential association falls under this theory o Important because in lecture, we covered the fact that kids learn how things are done from their parents (differential association), and the control theory indicates that authority is broken down. Differential association o Definition: the idea hat society has a variety of subcultures, and some social environments tend to encourage illegal activities, whereas others do not. Individuals become delinquent through associating with people who are the carriers of criminal norms. o Important because the book introduces Edwin Sutherland, who came up with this idea that deviance is learned through interaction with others. He claims that criminal behavior is learned within primary groups - particularly peer groups. o Differential association can relate to Willie’s life mentioned in the Giddens text. Willie lived with a group of homeless men and learned from these people, how to rob restaurant delivery boys
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who were unlikely to report the crime because many of them were illegal immigrants from China or Mexico. Willie wouldn’t have known these tactics without associating with these homeless men first. Conflict theory of deviance o Definition: the Marxist idea that deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature; individuals choose to engage in deviant behavior in response to the inequalities of the capitalist system.
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