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Respiratory System Review

Respiratory System Review - Anatomy Review Respiratory...

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Anatomy Review: Respiratory Structures Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction As they function, our cells use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. • The respiratory system brings the needed oxygen into and eliminates carbon dioxide from the body by working closely with the cardiovascular system. • The blood transports these gases, carrying oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide to the lungs. Page 2. Goals • To review the major organs of the respiratory system. • To examine the structures of the respiratory zone of the lungs. • To explore the microscopic anatomy of an alveolus. Page 3. Overview: Respiratory System Organs Let's review the organs of the respiratory system by following the flow of air. • Air enters the nose by passing through two openings called the nares , or nostrils. • Within the nose, the air passes through the nasal cavity , and then travels through the pharynx , a muscular tube which carries both food and air throughout most of its length. • Air then enters the larynx . • After passing through the larynx, air enters the trachea , which is held open by incomplete rings of cartilage. • The trachea divides into a right and a left main bronchus , which carry the air into the lungs. • Although not part of the respiratory system, the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles play important roles in breathing. • Label the diagram:
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Page 4. Demonstration of Pleurae and the Lungs Each lung is surrounded by two layers of serous membrane known as the pleurae. • The relationship between the pleurae and the lungs can be demonstrated by pushing a fist into a water-filled balloon. The balloon represents the pleurae, and the fist represents the lung. • As the fist pushes into the balloon, notice how the balloon wraps around it, and the opposite surfaces of the balloon almost touch. The inner part of the balloon which wraps around the fist represents the visceral pleura. The visceral pleura is the part of the pleura which covers the surface of the lungs. • The outer part of the balloon represents the parietal pleura, which lines the mediastinum, the diaphragm, and the thoracic wall. • Notice that the visceral and parietal pleurae are actually a continuation of the same membrane. • The water-filled space between the two layers represents the pleural cavity, which contains pleural fluid.
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Page 5. Visceral and Parietal Pleura The visceral pleura and parietal pleura enclose each lung in a separate sac. The frosty layer you see here covering the lung is the portion of the parietal pleura that lines the anterior thoracic wall.
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