Exam 1 Study Guide - Agricultural Revolution the gradual...

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Agricultural Revolution: the gradual shift from hunting and gathering to farming, occurring over hundreds of years. Neolithic: The New Stone Age, which began between 10,000 and 11,500 years ago with the transition to simple farming. Hittites: an Indo-European people who invaded Mesopotamia, moving from their base in central Anatolia; famous for their later use of iron weapons. Ziggurat: a stepped, pyramidal-shaped temple building in Sumerian cities, seen as the home of the chief god of the city. Diffusion Theory: ? Sedentary: abiding in one place; not migratory Cuneiform: (“wedge-shape”) Latin term used to describe the writing system invented by the Sumerians. Epic of Gilgamesh: world’s first poem and epic; examined morality; echoes Hammurabi’s view of the world as a dangerous place in which happiness is hard to find. Hammurabi: Babylon’s most famous king who reunified Mesopotamia; had nearly 300 laws collected and “published” on a pillar in the city; law of retaliation most noted principle. Akkadians: dominated Sumerians; first empire; struggles between rival cities became endemic, generating frequent warfare. Semetic: ? Horus: Divine King; personified in the ruling pharaoh Khufu (Cheops): pharaoh whose pyramid, the Great Pyramid at Giza, is the largest. Siddharta Gautama: lived a wealthy life and “woke up” when seeing how peasants lived; founded Buddhism. Osiris: god of the afterlife; god-king who established peace and justice on earth. Vishnu: Preserver of Life; god in Hinduism Shiva: Destroyer of Life; god in Hinduism Kshatriyas: warrior class in the Vedic Age Isis: wife of Osiris who put her dead husband’s pieces together to resurrect him. The Nile River: River in Egypt, in which the populace depended on its flooding for agriculture; split into the White, Blue, and the Atbara; state rose to control its waters. Menes: Upper Egyptian King who united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3000 BCE Mahavira: ?
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The Tigris and the Euphrates: rivers in Mesopotamia where fertile land formed in their banks; fostered several Mesopotamian societies; both begin in eastern Anatolia and flow southeast over a thousand miles into the Persian Gulf.
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