Exam 2 - Outlines - I Athens and Sparta A Intro Geography...

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I. Athens and Sparta A. Intro – Geography of Greece 1. Played a significant role in the evolution of Greek history a) Specifically Sparta and Athens 2. First arrival of Greeks – 1900BCE 3. Mountainous a) Landscape broken up, making creation of overarching state difficult 4. Compared to Mesopotamia and Egypt, it occupied a small area a) Small agricultural area B. Athens 1. Wheat production led to soil exhaustion a) Farmers became heavily indebted and several lost their land or became slaves 2. Solon elected in 594 BCE to lead the city and solve the problem a) A general, merchant, and poet b) Rewrote the old constitution (1) Cancelled the debts of peasants (2) Made wealth, not birth, the basis for membership of the Council c) Didn’t resolve fundamental problem: the concentration of land in the aristocracy 3. Led to rise of tyrant – Pisistratus a) Continued Solon’s policies, but confiscated land from the aristocrats and gave them to the poor
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b) However, he also implemented public work which reduced unemployment problem c) Successors couldn’t continue his policies 4. Led to rise of Cleisthenes a) Established genuine democracy in Athens in 507BCE (1) Ekklesia – General assembly of all adult males (2) Council of 500 (law making body) C. Sparta 1. Land Shortage a) Athens established oversea colonies b) Sparta conquered their neighbors, defeating the Messenians (1) Took over land – reduced them to a state of helotry 2. Helots (Messenians) outnumbered the Spartans 10 to 1 a) Led to constant revolts 3. Created Military State a) Kids conscripted into the military at the age of 7 (1) Active duty until age 60 b) Unfit kids were killed (infanticide) c) State monopolized economy (1) Anti-intellectual 4. Led by two kings and a Council of Elders a) Composed if 28 men over sixty and elected for life
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II. Decline of the polis A. Intro – Rise of the Macedonian Empire 1. Between 334 and 323BCE, Alexander, a student of classical Greek ideas, created the large empire, spreading Greek culture a) Legacy lived on for centuries in Hellenism – culture that included Asian and Greek characteristics 2. Urban civilization a) Ethnically diverse
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Exam 2 - Outlines - I Athens and Sparta A Intro Geography...

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