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Exam 1 - Outlines - I Intro A 13th Cent(France 14th...

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I. Intro A. 13th Cent (France); 14th Cent (England); 15th Cent (Bohemia) 1. Religious sects battle the Papal Church a) All suppressed – driven underground 2. 16 th Cent (Germany) – Martin Luther, challenger of Rome a) Supported by people II. Reformation in Germany A. German kingdom had disintegrated into dozens of principalities 1. Weak central government a) Unlike France, England, and Spain 2. Could not resist papal authority B. Appointed Bishops to German churches C. Papacy imposed heavy taxes on Germans 1. German rulers angry at tax funds going to a foreign power a) Used for goals they did not support b) Looked for popular cause to challenge Rome (1) Good time because HRE focused on stopping spread of Ottoman Empire in East (2) Found in the teachings of Martin Luther III. Martin Luther A. Objected to the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church
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1. Simony – sale of religious offices 2. Sale of Indulgences 3. Illiterate clergy a) Led to spiritual decline 4. Preoccupied with money, not people or theology B. 95 Theses 1. October 31, 1517- nailed to door of his cathedral 2. Protested the concept of papal supremacy a) If ever meant to be God’s messenger, he lost that right through corruption 3. Justification by faith a) Faith alone is key to heaven (1) “The just shall live by faith.” (a) Epiphany through Bible verse (b) Cuts out the middle man (i) Undermines papal authority 4. 1520s - Lutheran congregations formed throughout Germany and Scandinavia (1) Rejecting pope and condemning Rome as evil 5. Shattered the unity of Western Christianity IV.
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V. Intro A. Vikings traveled from Scandinavia to Greenland and North America by 1000CE 1. Too risky a) Population base too small to maintain 2. Major technological advances transformed maritime commerce a) Called the Maritime Revolution VI.
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