Ancient and Medieval History Notes Part 3

Ancient and Medieval History Notes Part 3 - Ancient and...

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Ancient and Medieval History Notes Part 3 Hebrews: The history of ancient Egypt has two dramas. They started out as wondering tribes and united together, making an urban society. They developed a self-conscious personality. They saw themselves as a distinctive type of people. (1 st drama) They also moved from polytheism to monotheism. (2 nd drama) There were references in the Hittite documents and the Egyptian documents but the main reference is the Torah, which is problematic. It has many loopholes. It is debatable today on how to interpret it. The Torah is a collection of stories, different forms of songs, poems, and history. The sections were added at different times. They also decided what would and wouldn’t be put in it. It began as an oral history. It never became a solid until 1900 BC. They stole their alphabet from the Phoenicians and changed it to what they needed. The last form of the Torah doesn’t appear until 539 BC because the Hebrews wanted to restore their religion. Pentateuch- the first 5 books of the Bible. It describes the beginning of the cosmos, and when they were in Canaan. It also had their law, the Torah. The basic theme of the Hebrew bible is the necessity to obey god. It is the story of Nomadic Pastoralists. They settled down after time and became agricultural. Abraham lived in Mesopotamia. He lived in Ur in Sumer. He lived around 2000 BC. The story goes that he decided to leave w/ his family b/c he was disgusted by polytheism. His god was Yahweh. He moved W towards Israel. Cain and Able- farmers vs. shepherds Sodom and Gomorra- same as Cain and Able Jews in Egypt- Moved in during the second intermediately period. (c. 1700 BC)
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After 1700 BC, Apiru (Hapiru) symbols showed up. It is a derogatory symbol the Egyptian’s used to refer to those not of Egyptian blood. 1500 BC, Moses, an Egyptian name, leads the Jews out of Egypt and, according to the Bible, he renews the Covenant. He is given the Ten Commandments. Re-strengthen the connection to Yahweh. By the time they reach Canaan (Modern Jordan and Israel), they have re-identified themselves as a special, specific group. They enter Palestine after 40 to 50 years. When the Jews arrive, war breaks out between the Amorites and other Canaanite groups that lived there vs. the Hebrews. When they settle into Israel, they stay in their 12 tribes, instead of a state. Their chieftains are called “Judges.” After they settled, they battled with the Philistines for 200 yrs. This led to political centralization. Saul is the first king of the Israelites 250 yrs after they left Egypt. Saul is killed in battle. Chaos ensues. David takes control and leads them to victory.
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Ancient and Medieval History Notes Part 3 - Ancient and...

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