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Modern History part 8

Modern History part 8 - Modern History part 8 Social...

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Modern History part 8 Social Changes Cont’d: Fails to deliver unified Italy and unified Germany. People have to choose between liberal or national ties. In France, after the revs of 1848, Louise Napoleon (Nephew of Napoleon) ran for president and won b/c people knew his name. In 1852, he should have to step down b/c he could only have one turn. They said no. He seized power. Makes himself as President for Life. Made 2 nd empire and became Emperor Napoleon III (Napoleon made his son emperor when he abdicated). He called himself a reformist. Plebiscites- Quention; vote yes or no. In 1870, he held another plebiscite that asked if they wanted more freedom. They voted no. Liberals were wary of democracy b/c this was a possibility. It could vote a tyrant in. He censored newspapers. Controlled elections (stuffed ballot box). Controlled army. Cultivated popularity. Wanted to make himself loved not feared. He tried to expand economic growth for everyone. He gave all males the vote. He also rebuilt Paris (damaged in revolutions) Baron Haussmann- designed Paris. It is better and prettier. Boulevards were large (like 60 yards) so no one could build a barricade. Napoleon III made a search for popular approval. It lead to a war with Russia. Some of the war has to do with the Holy Places in Jerusalem. The Ottoman Empire has allowed certain churches into Jerusalem. Fight between Orthodox and Catholic. French choose Catholic side. Russia takes Orthodox side. Neither really care about the religions but wanted power. Turks side with France and pull the British along (kicking and screaming XDDDD) against Russia. Crimean War. (1854-1856) Most battles took place in Crimea. Florence Nightingale reformed British medical system at this war. Peace of Paris (signed in Paris). Russia lost. They realized that they were less advanced than W Europe. They were surprised at how far behind they were. They also thought they
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were sure to win b/c they had convinced themselves that they had defeated the first Napoleon single handedly. Nicholas I died of natural causes in middle of war. Alexander II, his son, became czar. He made many reforms b/c he wanted to close the gap again. Zemstros- Biggest reform: serfdom abolished in 1861!!!! It lasted forever longer than W Europe! The peasants had hoped that the govt. would end serfdom and take some land from the aristocrats and parcel it out to individuals. They gave it to a whole village a mir. They also have to pay the aristocrats compensation for the loss of the land. Still have a Russia that’s behind but also with some urbanization and middle class that are dissatisfied with the half-ass attempt to catch up. Italy Not been a unified state for 1500 years (since the Roman Empire).
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