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Modern History Part 7

Modern History Part 7 - Modern History Part 7 Social...

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Modern History Part 7 Social Changes: Burschenschaften- drinking clubs for students in universities that turned political. Students want liberalism. One student assassinated a German politician (August von Kotzebul) in 1819. This pointed to the dangers of student radicalism and liberalism. The confederation meets and makes the Karlsbad Decrees- more censorship. Tighter grip on German universities. Close lots of burschenschaften. Liberalism- a growth industry. Raise of middle class with industrial revolution. Middle class are eager to get more power with their money. Tend to be liberal with economics (laizze- fairists). Liberal with politics b/c they want power b/c they are just as wealthy as aristocracy. o Individual conscience is allowed to be free. Natural rights. Not from civilization. Freedom, property. These are championed by Enlightenment. o (Get rest from Saga…) o In favor of Glorious Revolution, American Revolution, and French Revolution o Huge value on individuals. Not from groups, guilds, heredity. Not corporate rights… individual rights. Therefore, no individual group should have special rights. o Reason is the basis of politics. If you want political advancement, you need to educate people. o Distrust state. Govt. authorities are a threat to personal independence. o The state that governs least is the state that is the best. o Still need a state though. A state is a necessary evil that needs to be watched and kept checked but still needs to exist. o Admire US constitution and bill of rights. o Popular sovereignty not divine right. o Checks-and-balances, representation in different branches. o Concern with free economic control. o You should be able to decide who you hire/ fire/ start a business/ what you do/ where you live/ what you pay… then you are responsible for the consequences of your actions.
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o Democracy- most liberals are not democrats. Worried about Tyranny of the Majority. Fear participation of masses in politics. They see them as ignorant, inexperienced, uneducated, wrong temperament. o Satisfied where the American Revolution stopped but not where the French Revolution ended. o Masses DO tend to give up freedom to one dictator for other things (state power, money…) o They think of politics as rational but irrational ties interfere with rational faculties. o As you move from the 1790-1880s, you see a move towards mass participation in politics in several countries in Europe. Nationalism- a powerful force. From 1880-1930s. Liberalism and nationalism seem to push together toward the same goal. After 1815, liberal leaders tend to support nationalist movements b/c they consider the struggle of a nation for rights is similar to a struggle of an individual for rights. Nationalism threatens many things: absolutist rule and empires with many different ethnic groups for example.
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