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Modern History Part 4

Modern History Part 4 - Modern History Part 4 Enlightenment...

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Modern History Part 4 Enlightenment: When the medieval era ended, you also have the breakdown of the medieval cosmology. Cosmology- view of the universe The medieval view is an eclectic bunch of theories from Aristotle and Ptolemy and church doctrine. Aristotle argued that it is in the nature of physical objects to move. He said that the bodies in the heavens moved and had weight. It is derived from physics. He said that earth is the heaviest object and is the center of the universe. He said everything else moved around the earth in perfect circles. Earth didn’t move. They also made music as they moved. Ptolemy of Alexandria wrote the Almagest. It is the handbook of Greek Astronomy. It made up medieval cosmology. They added epicycle. Twirls of circles in the orbit to stop discreptionsies about the movement of starts and planets. Ptolemyic thory was a perfect fit with Christian theology. Earth changes and is sinful and is in the center of the universe b/c earth is a stage and they are actors in a play on salvation. Plato disagreed with a lot of Aristotle’s theories. Platonic philosophy emphasized looking beyond the obvious to get to the invisible reality. Neo-Platonists believed that Plato argued that the invisible reality is organized, simple, and rational. Mathematics was their conclusion of that reality. They decided that mathematics must organize the universe. More and more anomalies come in from their epicycle theories. T.S. Kuhn wrote “The Origins of Scientific Revolutions” He explained that there is a shift in models when new things are found. Nicholas Copernicus- clergyman. Polish. Traveled to Italy. Concerned with the anomalies. Neo-Platonist. He felt that the model was too complicated. He came up with a new model. A heliocentric one. He wrote a book explaining his new model. “On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies.” He is a clergyman and was afraid of political figures and theories and didn’t publish his book until when he was dying. This was the beginning of the Scientific Revolution. (1543) He maintained a lot of Aristotle’s ideas. He kept the circular orbits. Copernicus took other people’s data and constructed a new model through mathematics.
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Tycho Brahe- German. In a duel he got part of his nose cut off. Weird looking. Wore fake nose. He was born about three years after Copernicus’s book was published. He was head of Dutch astronomy. He doesn’t have a telescope. He does not accept Copernicus’s model are right. He argued that the sun and the moon revolve around the earth and the other planets orbit the sun. His observatory collected more data than anyone else ever did. Johannes Kepler- got Brahe’s data. He got a lot of mathematic evidence against
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Modern History Part 4 - Modern History Part 4 Enlightenment...

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