Modern History part 2

Modern History part 2 - Modern History part 2 Reformation...

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Modern History part 2 Reformation: In N Germany, there were free cities. They had special charters given by the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. They guarded these charters. The citizens wanted to maintain their autonomy while the princes and emperors wanted to chip at the charter and pull the free citizens into their control. The free citizens didn’t want the Church or the emperor in charge of them. The renaissance was stronger in urban areas. Not all humanists stayed catholic. Martin Luther (born 1483) was preoccupied with religious concerns from when he was 6. He was given a humanist and Christian education. He decides to enter a monastery at 21. He is obsessed with the fact that he is sinful. He tries to get over the feeling of sinfulness through pain (beatings), uncomfort, and works. He has an intense dread of damnation. He doesn’t think he’s worthy of salvation. While in the monastery, he studied the Bible very carefully. He focused the part of Peter’s letters from Romans (Romans?). He came to the conclusion that faith in God was the only way to gain salvation. He was a Catholic monk in a Catholic monastery who was branching away from “salvation by works.” He made a break from the Catholic church. It is unknown if he knew he broke away. He moved to Saxony and taught at the University at Wittenburg (Sp?) At 34, a Dominican friar was selling indulgences. He got angry and wrote “95 Theses” He took them to Wittenburg Castle and nailed them to the door. He said that doing works would not make you good enough for salvation. He said that salvation was a gift from God for faith. Works were good but not enough. Luther was saying that any literate person can gain salvation without the Church. It said that you could decide what God meant. You didn’t need the Church to translate it. This meant that the Church and clergy were unnecessary. He also meant that they were a hindrance. He claimed that nothing the Church could offer could bridge the gap between a man and God.
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He said the key of salvation was something a man had to do on his own. It made salvation a personal struggle until a collective struggle. He said that in the task of achieving salvation was equally difficult or easy for clergy and laity. Luther became a German national hero. The papacy looked Italian and like a foreign power to nationalists. Frederick Elector of Saxony gave protection to Luther from the church. Luther assumed at first that the Church and he could debate and they could reform and he would be forgiven. However, the division couldn’t be healed. In about 1518, Luther became more radical. He urged the German monarchy to take the land from the corrupt papacy. In 1519, 2 years after he nailed the 95 Theses, he got the “Bull of Excommunication.” He
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Modern History part 2 - Modern History part 2 Reformation...

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